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THE 



MUSICAL CURRICULUM: 



FOR^OfiJD ANS* SYMMETRICAL ACQUIREMENT IN 



PIANO-FORTE PL'ATTCWgING, AND HARMONY; 



CONTAINING: COPIOUS AND CAREFULLY 



PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES, PIECES, SONGS, TECHNICS, SOLFEGGIOS, AND ETUDES, 

IN ALL THE KEYS. 



y-dvf a, q 3 



IN WHICH ARE STUDIED AND PRACTICED 



CHORDS AND THEIR PROGRESSIONS, TRANSPOSITION, MODULATION AND ACCOMPANYING. 



TO WHICH ARE PREFIXED 



A METHOD OF TEACHING AND A GLOSSARY OF MUSICAL TERMS AND SIGNS. 



BIT GEO. IF 1 . BOOT. 



CHICAGO: 

PUBLISHED BY ROOT & CA.DY. 

1865. 

6 



vau * ^ LL AO*h*^a 



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T 

Entered according to Act of Congress, A. D., 18C4, by Root & Ca'dy, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Northern Distriet of Illinois. 



ZP^ZEZFJ^OIE. 



To Parents and Guardians ; 



My preface will eonsist of a few plain words to those who have .charge, of tb£ # musieal education of others, and who employ teaehers 

and purchase iustruments, musie and musieal books. And first with" regard to instruments. It is a mistake to suppose that some worn 

* .*•? **• •**"**• **» »*• ,* t * .* tr f ' ' r < 
out or eheap affair will "do to begin with," for saying nothing abpuX *t;ae; Jnjis Jcfai' Enjoyment; of player and listeners, strength and flex- 

ibility of fingers, and all the other things of execution depend upon practicing upon an instrument that has a good action, and the musieal 

perceptions, together with expression and all other things of taste, depend upon having one that has a good quality of tone, and that ean 

be easily kept in tune. 

With regard to a teacher, it is not always the one that can perform the best that can teaeh the best, though all other things beinc 
equal, the one who ean give a good musieal example is to be preferred. But having seeured a competent teaeher, one who has the best 
interests of his pupils at heart, it is very unwise to bring sueh a pressure to bear upon him as will foree him out of the eourse he knows 
to be best for the pupil, in order to gratify any love of display either in the eoneert room or parlor. It is not unreasonable that you 
should desire to enjoy as soon as possible the fruits of your expenditure and the labor of the pupil, and it is one objeet of this Curriculum 
to provide the means of doing so to a reasonable extent in a legitimate way. 

With regard to time for practice, it should not be when the pupil is exhausted with other studies or duties. Overworked people, 
young or old, ean do nothing well, and it is probably better not to undertake the systematic study of musie unless a sufficient amount of 
time ean be given for practiee when the pupil is fresh and vigorous. A prominent fault in this eountry is that our young people are re- 
quired to take too many studies and spend too mueh time in sehool for their best growth. 

With regard to music to be played and sung, that only should be used whieh is eorreet and tasteful ; and in respeet to words, pure 
and unobjectionable. Sentiments of bad tendency, and that would not be tolerated in speeeh, sometimes eoneeal themselves and pass cur- 
rent in song. In instruction books the various lessons, pieees and exereises, instrumental and voeal, should eover ground enough to 
afford the means for cultivating all the powers of the pupil aeeording to their relative importance, not leaving the execution behind the 
reading and appreciation, nor vice versa; not making time and tune all, and leaving taste and good expression out of the question; and 
more important than all the rest, not cultivating a parrot-like style of performance that ignores all knowledge of keys and harmo- 
nies, as well as general musieal intelligence. 

May I be pardoned in elosing for hinting at the importance of learning musie rather for the benefit and pleasure it maybe to others 
than to feed and gratify vanity and self-love, sinee right views and corresponding motives on this subjeet will go far toward keeping the 
pupil in thn virrht eourse and praetieing in the right way. 

GEO. F. ROOT. 



Joitn Conaiux, Stereotype!*. 



METHOD OF TEACHING. 



Fellow Teachers : — 

We may all learn something from each other if we are rightly 
interested in our work, on the principle that every teacher has some ways 
of his own that are either new, or that suggest new things to others when 
they arc known. Believing this, I come before you, without hesitation or 
apology, to show, as well as these inadequate means (pen, ink, and paper,) 
will allow, how I would direct and educate the powers of young people in 
the study of music, and in the use of the piano-forte and voice. It would 
be wrong in me to claim all the ideas and plans in this book as my own — 
many of them are from other teachers,* modified and carried out, however, 
according to the light that I have on this subject; and as a whole will be 
found new. Certainly no book has ever before undertaken to cover this 
ground, and I venture to say that few have ever been made with so much 
labor, it having been written and re-written, arranged and re-arranged, 
with interpolations, subtractions, and other ehanges, many times, before it 
assumed its present order aud form. This would not have been the case 
had I adopted the plan of any other book, and will, I doubt not, be regarded 
as some excuse for such, imperfection as may after all be found in it. 

TWO WAYS OF TEACHING. 

There are two ways of teaehing; one shorter, and the other longer. 
The shorter is to tell all things to the pupil, the longer is to have him 
find out all he can himself,— ^or, the shorter is to do for the pupil what the 
longer would have him do for himself. That which is told or done by the 
teacher is not thus always made known to the pupil; that which he finds 
out and docs himself always is. That whieh is told or done by the teacher 
does not tax the powers of the pupil; that which he finds out and does him- 
self, docs tax them. That which does not tax the powers of the pupil, gives 
him no exereise, and causes no growth; that which taxes his powers rightly, 
both strengthens and expands them. That whieh taxes some of his powers 
and not others, produces deformity; that which taxes them alt according 
to their need, tends to symmetry. Things that exist in the nature of 
musical sounds, can be found out by well guided investigation. Things 
that man has invented, must generally be told. Finding out and doing 
the things of music is primary in- importance. Learning their names, 
signs, or descriptions, secondary. This method is to show, as well as may 
be, what the pupil can find out, and what the teacher should tell, — how 
the teacher should guide and conduct the investigations of the pupil, and 
what the pupil should do, and how he should do it, to beeome an 
intelligent and skillful interpreter of music for the piano-forte and voice. 
Sueh things as are adapted to the powers of the pupil should be introduced 
and acquired by him when they are needed. This plan is adopted here, 
and it brings in some things early which have usually been late, or omitted 
entirely, as will be seen. 

And now fellow teachers, I ask permission to assume the familiar manner 
that we should naturally have, if we were talking together about teaching, 
because thus I ean express myself more elearly on these subjeets, whieh are 
of so much interest to us all. So I begin by saying: I know, and can do, 
some things that my pupil does not know, and can not do, but which with the 
aid of such means as are here, (piano, books, &c.,) and his co-operation, I 
wish to make him know, and do, and more too, if possible. 

THE BETTER WAT. 

Now, whieh is the better way? Although I have indicated it in 
general, it will be more clear when brought down to particulars. The 
first step in every case is to bring that which is to be taught, to the 
perception of the pupil, and this, according to its nature — that which is 
to be perceived by the eye, to the eye; that which is to be pereeived by 
the ear, to the ear, &c. Sometimes I would hold it up myself for 
investigation, and sometimes I would get him to do it; always the latter, 
when possible. Many things in music that are presented and investigated 
early in the course, are only learned or acquired after long practiee, 

* I ought especially to name Dr. C. C. Miller, of Marongo, III., from whom I have received much and 
important aid. 



nevertheless the sueeess of this learning or acquiring, depends upon the 
right first presentation and investigation. Take for example the first thing 
named at No. 1, (page 23.) 

POSITION. LETTERS AS NAMES OF TONES. 

Shall I present this to the eye of the pupil, or to his car? This is 
deeided by the nature of the thing — is it a thing seen or heard? If seen 
then it must be presented to the eye. This is one of the things that 
the teacher must present, and I do it by seating myself at the instrument 
in the right way, while the pupil's attention is called to the position of my 
body, arms, hands, &c. He does not acquire a good position by seeing me 
take it; that only comes after some days or weeks of practice on his part, 
with, perhaps, repeated examples and directions on mine; but the beginning 
has been made, and it has been made in accordance with the nature of the 
thing to be acquired. 

There are some things of music that are cither already known to the 
pupil, or that are so simple and evident that but a word is necessary to 
make them known, and for the teaehing of which the shorter way, before 
spoken of, will answer just as well. Such things are, First, that the 
piano-forte may be made to produce musieal sounds, (technically called 
tones,) and, Second, that these sounds have for their names, the same that 
are applied to the first seven letters of the alphabet, (with, in some cases, 
the addition of other words — F sharp, B flat, &c.,) and that these names 
are also applied to the white keys of the instrument. So I should simply 
tell .the pupil so mueh of this as he needs to play No. 1. I would tell 
him no more than where to play C, D, and Gr, because anything more 
would be useless at present, and that whieh is useless, or that which 
cannot be put into immediate practice, is forgotten soon, and like rubbish, 
only in the way while it remains. Introducing and explaining only that 
which ean be put right into the work, and thus begin to be incorporated 
into the musical life of the pupil, is a matter of great importance. At 
this No. 1, I should let the pupil strike these keys with any finger, and in 
almost any way, on the principle of having as few difficulties at a time as 
possible. By way of review I would ask such questions on what has been 
done as will occasionally be found during the remainder of these remarks 
on teaching. What is the technical name of a musical sound? How are 
tones named? How many C's are there on your piano? How many G J s? 
Hoio many D's ? 

INTERVALS. 

At No. 2, the things to be presented for investigation and subsequent 
reeeption into the mind of the pupil, and thence into his action, are 
intervals. How shall they be presented? As before, of course, according 
to their nature. Is an interval something to the eye, or to the ear? (Keep 
in mind that we are speaking of the principal things, not the subordinate 
things or signs.) To the ear certainly, and must be presented accordingly. 
By whom — the teacher or the pupil? The pupil, if he can, by all 
means, as the more of his own effort in that which he is learning, the 
better for him. Will he do it by your telling him to manifest an interval 
with his voice, or by the instrument ? Not unless he has previous knowledge 
on the subject, for he cannot be supposed to know what the word interval 
means, as applied to music, since that is an invention of man. Will he 
succeed any better if you point to the sign of an interval, (two notes or 
different degrees of the staff,) and ask what its name is? Certainly not, 
and all because names and signs do not come first in "the orderly and right 
presentation; and this brings us back to the thing itself and its presentation. 
I should simply ask the pupil to strike any two keys of the piano, one 
after the other, or together, and eall his attention to the diflerence of 
highness or lowness between them, (technically called ^iVc/t,) and after 
some listening on' his part, would say that that difference is called an 
interval. I would then ask him to manifest a larger interval; afterward a 
smaller, and at last the one produced by any two contiguous white keys, 
and this I would name a second. I would ask him to notice the sound of this 
second, when both tones are heard, together, and also when heard, one 



!M!etliod of Teaching. 



after the other. I would then ask him to strike two, (still keeping on the 
white keys,) skipping over one key. When heard and examined, I wonld 
name this interval a third. At the next, viz. striking two keys, between 
which were two others, he would readily give the name, (fourth,) and 
proceeding in a similar manner, I would introduce the fifth. These intervals 
I would have him play all over the piano; first with one hand, then with 
the other; sometimes upward, and sometimes downward. I would then 
tell him that he might count seconds, thirds, fourths, and fifths, on his hand ; 
that from the thumb to the first finger might be considered a second, 
from thumb to second finger a third, from thumb to third finger a fourth, 
and from thumb to fourth finger a fifth ; in short, from any finger or thumb 
to the next a second, to the next but one a third, to the next but two a 
fourth, and so on, either one way or the other. I would then ask him to 
play seconds any where on the piano, with seconds on the hand — that is 
with the fingers, or thumb and finger that are a second apart — so thirds, 
fourths, and fifths, by their corresponding fingers, with each hand separately, 
reckoning the intervals, both upward and downward, all over the 
instrument, calling attention to their differences, and to the different effect 
of the same interval when played high or low. All this would be training his 
musical perceptions, or ear as it is called, which is a part of the work of 
making an intelligent musician. What is the highness or lowness of tones 
called ? What is the difference in pitch between any two tones called ? How 
many intervals have we found? What arc their names? 

MIDDLE C. STAFF. TREBLE CLEF. QUARTER NOTES. INTERVALS ON 
STAFF. FINGER MARKS. 

At No. 3, I should first ask the pupil to strike the C nearest the middle 
of the piano with the thumb of the right hand. I should then give its 
name, (middle C,) and while he holds it, should say as follows: Tones as 
to their highness or lowness (pitch,) are represented by lines and spaces, 
called together a staff. The five long lines and their spaces do not afford 
places enough to represent all the tones we want to use, so that lines or 
spaces are frequently added. Either line or space might be taken to 
represent middle C, but in this book it will be represented by two places 
only, viz : the first short line below, and the first short line above. When 
it is to be represented by the short line below, (technically called the first 
added line below,) a character called the treble clef is placed on the staff. 
I would here mate a short staff with a pencil on a piece of paper, with 
added line and clef, thus : d fc I would then point to the 

added line and say, this fe£- stands for middle C. Give 

it on the piano. I should *^ -—" now say, "the added line 

tells you exactly what sound to make, but does it tell you how long to make 
it?" and thus the necessity for notes would appear. I would now ask him 
to strike middle C about as fast as the pulse beats, and then would make a 
few quarter notes on a piece of paper thus iffffffff and tell him 
that they stand for about the length of sounds that he has been making, 
and that they are called quarter notes. He would here be easily led to see 
that notes alone only show how long to make sounds, and that the staff is 
needed to show which particular sound, or what pitch is to be given. 
After showing that the tone D (next above middle C) is represented by the 
space just below the first long line, I would have the pupil play it with the 
first finger, and then go through the lesson in an even and correct way, as 
indicated by the remarks to the pupil. This being done, I would proceed 
to say each line and space is called a degree, so there are eleven degrees 
that are always found with the staff. The first degree is ■ the space 
below; the second the first line; the third the first space; the fourth 
the second line, and so on to the eleventh degree, which is the space above. 
If more degrees are wanted they are made by added lines, and their 
consequent spaces, which are named first added line, first added space; 
above or below, as the case may be. I would here have the pupil learn 
that the degrees of the staff may represent intervals, that is that the 
.difference between a line and the space next to it may staud for a second; 
between a line and the next line a third; between a line and the next space 
but one a fourth, and so on; or that the difference between a space and 
the next line to it stands for a second; between a space and the next space 
a third, &c. In short, from one degree of the staff to the next is a second; 
to the next but one a third; to the next but two a fourth, &c. 

As our language calls the fingers first, second, third, and fourth, it is 



manifestly orderly and proper to indicate them in these lessons, by 
corresponding figures, and those who look at this not very important matter 
in the exercise of their common sense, cannot fail to see that it is so. 
There is no particular reason why a cross should indicate the thumb, but as 
it is in use, I adopt it, notwithstanding that in extremely rare cases it may 
be confounded with another musical character. I should endeavor not to 
have the pupil practice a moment with wrong positions or movements. 

How many lines has the staff? How many spaces? What is each 
tine and space of the staff called? How many degrees has the staff without 
the added lines and spaces? What are these degrees used for? or in other 
words, what does the staff represent? What character is used to make the 
staff so that the first added line below will represent middle. C? What 
characters represent the length of tones? What hind of notes are used 
in the lesson? What intervals? What two degrees of the staff will 
represent a second? What a third? What a fourth? What a fifth? 
What figure indicates the first finger in the marks of fingering? What 
the second? What character the thumb? 

BASE CLEF. 

At No. 4, I should say as follows : When it is desirable to make the staff 
so that the first added line above shall stand for middle C, a character called 
the base clef is placed upon it. If convenient, I would here illustrate with 
pencil and paper, thus : _^ I would then say, play the C next 

below middle C, with ex the thumb of the left hand; try 

to strike with the thumb only. This tone is represented by 

the fifth degree of the staff when the base clef is used, (the second 
space.) t*lay the G next below this C with the third finger. This tone is 
represented by the second degree of the base staff, (first line.) After 
calling the pupil's attention to the proper interval on the hand, I should 
have him play the lesson, giving him such directions as are printed over it. 
And I should not like to leave him until they were well understood and 
observed. What clef is used to make the first added line above stand for 
middle C? What interval is formed in this lesson? It will be here 
interesting to observe that if the treble and base staves are put near together, 
with one added line between them, thus: 
the added line will answer for either 
staff, and regarded from either staff, will 

stand for the very same tone which you zp* — 

may now see an additional reason for 

naming middle C. 

MEASURES. COUNTING. BARS. FIGURES. BRACE. 

Before playing No. 5, I would ask the pupil to play No. 3 again, but 
without looking on the book; and while he played, I would count one, two, 
one, two, one, two, and so on, repeating the words all through. I would 
then have him play and count himself, speaking the words promptly and 
evenly. I would then say, this is what is called measuring music, and the 
time which is taken for each one, two, is called a measure. It might be a 
good plan here to manifest measures in other ways, as by motions of the 
hand, or striking gently with the pencil on a book, or by tapping with the 
foot upon the floor; speaking at the same time of their advantages or 
disadvantages, but it is not very important. I would then say, play and 
count two measures — then four — then eight — all this without looking at the 
book. I would then point to the lesson and say : signs, or representatives 
of measures are those sections or spaces of the staff which are made by the 
little perpendicular lines, and these little lines are called bars, and the two 
bars at the end of the lesson make a double bar. I would also say that 
the signs of measures are usually called measures, for the sake of shortness 
and convenience, just as this, ($100) is called a hundred dollars, instead of 
the sign of a hundred dollars. However much we may yield to custom 
or convenience in speaking of the various things of music afterwards, it is 
a good plan to introduce them and their names according to exact truth, in 
order that the pupil may have clear and intelligent ideas about them. I 
should then say that measures consist of parts of measures, to each of 
which wc give a count or beat, and that when measures have two parts they 
are called double .measures, or the music so measured is said to be in double 
time. There is little or no use in the figures % at the commencement of 
the lesson, since the pupil already knows that the measures contain two 



i Das 

% 



!M!et"h.od of Teaching. 



fourth or quarter notes each, but as it is the custom to use figures, I print 
them. For the introduction of the other topic, I should say when the two 
hands play at the same time, the staves which indicate their parts or music, 
are connected with a character called a brace, placed at the beginning. If 
1 more parts are to be performed together, a larger brace is used. llow is 
musie measttred while it is being performed? What are those portions of 
time ealled whieh are occupied by equal groups of counts or beats? What 
kind of measure has two counts or parts? What are signs of measures? 
What are those Ihies ealled that shoio where these signs of measures are? 
What are the figures f for? What is a brace? 

I would here make a remark to my fellow teachers about the early and 
thorough study of intervals, and give some reasons for so doing. 

The player who depends upon looking at the fingers to strike the right 
keys, labors under great disadvantages. Aside from the bad appearance he 
makes bobbing his head about, first looking at his notes, then at one hand, 
then the other, he is liable to become confused by losing his place on the 
notes, and thus his time in the music. If, however, his hands can take care 
of themselves, and his eyes be free to watch the notes, he can not only 
observe all the notation, but can look a little ahead of where he is playing, 
and thus be prepared for what is coming. To do this, he must be familiar 
with intervals — not only that he may be able to tell them the instant he sees 
the notations representing them, but his fingers must be educated to make 
the proper extension or contraction to reach the keys that produce them, 
without the aid of his eyes. This is best accomplished by careful training 
from the very beginning. The pupil must learn to feel, rather than see, 
how far apart his fingers are — whether they rest upon contiguous keys, or 
upon those which are apart, and that in making intervals where the whole 
hand is moved, he may judge by the amount of motion how far his hand 
must go, just as he carries it to his mouth, forehead, or eyes, without seeing, 
and apparently without thought. 

OCTAVES. 

Before playing No. 6, I should say, strike middle (J with the right hand. 
Now the C next above middle C. This tone is said to be an octave above 
middle C. Play an octave above the D next to middle C. Now play middle 
C with the left hand. Now the Gr next below it. The seventh degree of 
the treble staff (third space) represents the octave above middle C, and the 
first added line above in the base, as you remember, middle C. I would 
here have the pupil play the lesson carefully, leading him to observe and 
try to do everything necessary to a good performance of it. 

HALF NOTE. ACCENT. MODERATO. 

Before playing No. 7, I should say, give me the tone whieh is an octave 
above middle C. Play several of these tones such as would be represented 
by quarter notes, counting while you play, one, two, one, two, &c. What 
part of a measure does each of these tones occupy? Now give me a tone 
that will fill the measure, or as long as both counts. Play several of these, 
counting as before. I should now point to the lesson and say, here is a 
representation of one'of these tones, and it is called a half note. While 
hearing the pupil practice, I would mould and guide him by directions and 
questions similar to those printed over ' the lesson. I would then ask him 
to play the lesson, giving a little more force to the first part of each measure, 
and this stress or force I would call accent. With accent begins the study 
of expression, or the more direct cultivation of the musical taste; and 1 
should try to have it tastefully and well done — not too strong, and above 
all things not monotonous. How many kinds of tones as to length have we? 
What are the names of the notes that represent them? It is proper here 
to say that we often use the words quarter notes and half notes as names 
for the length of tones, for reasons already given. I would now play 
myself, or hum the melody of the lesson; first too fast, then too slow, and 
then right; trying to have the pupil see that in the right time the lesson 
sounds the best. I would then say that it is customary to indicate the 
movements of music by Italian words, and that "moderato" (third syllable a/i) 
is the word indicating this. The reason why Italian words are taken, is 
that all nations have got into the habit of using them, and they have 
become, as it were, a general musical language. So we know what the 
German or French musician means when he marks his music, whieh might 
not be the case if the directions were given in his own language. 



METRONOME MARKS. 

An instrument called Maelzei/s Metronome, is constructed so as to 
give exactly as many strokes in a minute as the number, against whieh the 
weight is placed,indicates. Thus, when a piece is marked |*=100, it means 
that one hundred quarter noies are to be played in a minute, or a quarter 
note for every beat of the metronome. By this you can tell the exact time 
that the author wishes his piece to go in. 

In the absence of a metronome the following will answer as a substitute. 
Take a piece of tape about two feet long; and at the distance of 4| inches 
from one end, make a mark and number it 160; at 5 A inches from the 
same end mark 152; at 5f inches, 144; at 6 J inches, 138; at 7 inches, 
132; at 7| inches, 126; at 8} inches, 120; at 8| inches, 115; at 9} inches, 
112; at 10| inches, 108; at 1H inches, 104; at 12* inches, 100; at 13$ 
inches, 96; at 14f inches, 92; at 16J inches, 88; at 18 inches, 84; at 20 
inches, 80. Then take a bullet or leaden weight, (the exact size is not 
important,) split it open, and place the end of the tape from which you 
first measured in the cleft, and fasten it together,, with the end of the tape 
exactly in the centre of the weight. Then taking hold of the tape at the 
number that is marked over the piece you are about to play, let the weight 
swing, and for every beat it makes, you will play one note of the kind 
placed over the piece; for example, if above the piece you find as here, 
[•..=104, t a k e hold of the tape at those figures and set it swinging, and each 
vibration will give you the time of a quarter note. , As the pupil cannot 
swing the weight and play too, it is expected to be used only to get a correct 
idea of the movement, and to start the counting aright. 

MEZZO. FORTE. TIE. 

Before playing No. 8, I would say, strike every white key on the piano 
that is next above the two black ones. These tones are all named E. Play 
the E that is next above middle C. Now the E, an octave above that, 
and you will have the new tone represented in this lesson by the fourth 
space. Strike it eight times without trying to make it either loud or soft. 
This degree of strength is called mezzo, (pronounced metzo^) which is 
usually abreviated to m. When, therefore, you see the letter m in music, 
it signifies that you are to play or sing with medium strength. Now play 
eight times,loud, — this degree of strength is indicated by the word forte, 
(pronounced fore-ty,) or its abbreviation f Now give me a tone two 
measures or four counts long, (one, two, one, two.) Such a tone is indicated 
here by two half notes connected by a character called a tie. While the 
pupil is practicing this lesson, I would try with great care to have all the 
directions and hints printed above it observed and fixed, so that there 
should be no falling back in my absence, and that leads me to say that it is 
very important to have the pupil make as much progress in the lesson as 
possible, while you are present — good habits are then so much better 
formed, and subsequent practice is so much more easy and pleasant. 

rhythmics, melodics. dynamics. 
We now have something in the three departments of musie, and I should 
introduce their names simply by saying, all things in music that have to do 
with the length of sounds, belong to a department called Rhythmics, just 
as in mathematics, all that belongs to the adding of numbers together, 
comes under the head of addition, — all that relates to the pitch of sounds 
belongs to a department called Melodies, and all that relates to the strength 
or force of sounds to the department of Dynamics. What new things 
have xoe in this lesson belonging to Rhythmics? What to Melodies? 
What degree of the staff represents it? What to Dynamics? What 
have xoe learned in previous lessons that belong to Rhythmies*? What to 
Melodies? Have you had, anything before in Dynamics? 

TRIPLE MEASURE. DOTTED IIALF NOTE. 

Before No. 9, I would play a little upon the piano in triple measure, 
accenting pretty strongly, and would ask the pupil to count one, two, one, 
two, as before. He would see that this kind of measuring would hot 
answer, and I would ask him to try one, two, three. Then I would say 
that much music is written in measures of three parts ealled triple measure, 
or triple time. I would introduce the dotted half note, and the two dotted 
half notes tied, by asking him to play tones that would fill one of these 
measures, and then tones that would fill two of them, three counts long, 



6 



IVTetliocL of Teaching. 



and six counts long respectively. In practicing all these lessons, I would 
have the accent observed carefully and tastefully, as before mentioned, in 
addition to the printed hints and directions. How many kinds of measures 
have we? What is the first? What is the second? How many parte 
have they respectively? You notice the figures at the beginning say three 
fourths or quarters in a measure. 

Before No. 10, it would only be necessary to introduce the new tones, 
which would be done by asking the pupil to strike every white key just 
below and just above the three black ones, and give their names and the 
places of their representation in the staves. Are the new things of this 
lesson in Rhythmics, Melodies or Dynamics? . What degree of the treble 
staff represents F? What degree of the base staff B? How many hinds 
of intervals are found in the treble part of this lesson? What are they? 
How many in the base? What are they? 

RESTS. 

Before No. 11, I would first introduce the new tone A in the way I have 
introduced previous tones, and show its representation in the base, and 
then would ask the pupil to give me four tones, each filling a measure 
in triple time, (he may use this new tone if he likes.) I would then ask 
him to do the same with this difference, viz : take off the finger from the 
key at the last count or part of each measure, leaving the tone but two 
counts or beats long. I would then ask him to play a quarter note on the 
first and last parts of each measure, leaving the middle or second part 
silent as to the music, and perhaps would arrange other forms, in which he 
could practice the same thing. I would then tell him that passing over a 
part of a measure in this way is called resting^ and characters called rests 
are used to indicate it. I would here point to those in the lesson, and say 
they are called quarter rests, because each one takes up just as much time as 
a quarter note would. How many departments are there in music? What 
are they? Have we anything new in melodies in this lesson? By what 
degree of the base staff is A represented? Have toe any thing new here in 
Rhythmics ? What do rests indicate ? Show me seconds in the lesson ; thirds ; 
fourths. Are there any fifths? You see I fall into the way of speaking 
of intervals, when I mean representations or signs of intervals. This I 
think does no harm when the pupil knows what is right, and knows that 
this is done for brevity and convenience. 

LONG AND SHORT LESSONS. 

My idea is that an average pupil who is beginning will learn one of 
these lessons in the ordinary practice of oue day, — he can skim over and 
learn the outside in less time, but I mean so thorough a learning of it, that 
there shall not be a hesitation nor a mistake — indeed so that it shall sound as 
though he couldn't make a mistake. Have you ever noticed that some 
playing, sounds all the time as if the player was just going to break down, 
and you involuntarily draw a breatli of relief when he gets safely through ? 
Not only should the outside be thus perfect, but the accent and dynamic 
expression should be in right places, and tasteful. Names of tones and 
intervals should constantly occur to the mind, and every positiou and 
movement should be as nearly correct as possible. Playing a lesson merely 
iu time and tune, should be at least nearly accomplished before the teacher 
leaves the first giving of it, and this leads me to the very important matter 
of 

RIGHT AND PROGRESSIVE LESSONS. 

Lessons should be adapted to the states of the pupil, in the various stages 
of his advancement) at first not only easy of execution, but so constructed 
as to embody and express only simple mnsical ideas or feelings. You will 
often find in music that is easy of execution, places that beginners do not 
like, and ought not to be expected to like, being only understood and 
appreciated, after considerable culture. Take for example the matter of 
pedal harmony, whicli is found in much music for beginners; my experience 
is that it can only be appreciated and liked by persons who have studied 
and. heard music for years, or at least those who have studied many months. 
Then these right lessons should be so gradually progressive, that the pupil 
shall find in each one successively, that only an agreeable and reasonable 
tax upon his time and powers is required to learn and understand it 
thoroughly. Let me make two pictures. 'Number one. Note or word from 
pupil. " I havn't* learned my lesson; please excuse me," or, "please do 



not come to-day," or if no such note is sent, pupil appears, looking 
anxious and discouraged — perhaps muttering, " I can't play my lesson I 
know." Being seated, commences — all goes wrong — no proper conception 
of the music — no love for it — can neither execute nor understaud it — or 
being energetic and desperate, dashes over it with many faults of omission 
and commission. Teacher annoyed and perplexed says to himself, " now I 
must either let this lesson go with the difficulties not half conquered, and 
so send him on unprepared to meet the next; or I must keep him here 
until he is utterly disgusted with the whole subject, or, I must give up 
trying to keep him in the instruction book, and must spend half my time in 
music stores, selecting what is adapted to his state and attainments. 
Picture No. two. Pupil comes in — is evidently glad to see you, — goes 
straight to the piano and plays his lesson tastefully and well. He has 
mastered it completely, and enjoys it thoroughly. You have nearly all the 
hour for the next lesson, which being adapted to the state of the pupil, is 
well started before the time is up. If at the house of the pupil, mother 
or sister comes in, and compliments you on the progress that is being made, 
and perhaps says that although the lessons are simple, they give a good 
deal of pleasure, and that there is very little difficulty in having the 
practice hours observed. I fully believe that these pictures are true, and 
that number one shows the results of wrong lessons, either in quality or 
quantity, and number two of right ones. 

QUADRUPLE MEASURE. WHOLE NOTE. 

At No. 12, I should introduce the tone G, in the way already shown, and 
should then ask the pupil to give it four times, holding each tone while he 
counts one, two, three, four, thus making each tone four counts long. 
This I would say introduces both a new note and a new measure, which I 
would name. I should now say play four measures of quarter notes, and 
accent the first and third note in each measure, and let the accent on the 
first part of the measure be a little stronger than that on the third. This 
is said to be the natural accent in this kind of time. What new things 
have we here in Rhythmics? What in Melodies? Anything new in 
Dynamics? How many parts has Quadruple measure? What do the 
figures at the beginning of the lesson show ? Could you tell that without those 
figures? What degree of the treble staff stands for this G? What new 
interval is here? What hind of note is half as long as a whole note*? 
What kind of note is a quarter as long? What three qarters? How many 
quarters would be equal in length to a half? How many to a dotted half? 
How many to a whole? On what part of the measure does the accent 
occur in this kind of time? It would be better for the pupil to play the 
lesson once or twice before the questions are asked. After introducing 
the F in the base at No. 13, and hearing the practice of the lesson with 
reference to position, movement, intervals, &c, I should "ask the pupil to 
play it with equal strength throughout, then with Dynamic variety, by 
means of Mezzo and Forte, and then decide where the application of these 
Dynamic degrees would make the lesson sound best. It is hardly 
necessary to remind you that any practice of the pupil at this time, too fast, 
with wrong movements of fingers, or wrong positions, with unsteady or 
drawling counting, keeping one piano key down while strikiug the next, 
losing the place "by not keeping the eyes upon the book, guessing at the 
notes, not striving to give the expression best adapted to bring out the full 
meaning of the music, and in general leaving out, or doing wrong, any of 
the things which go to make a complete and healthy musical growth, 
proportionately injures 5 and retards his success. 

PIANO. HALF REST. 

At No. 14, I should introduce the new things according to their nature, 
and have the pupil do them before looking at 5 aud learning their signs. 
Have we anything new in Dynamics in this lesson? What does piano 
mean? What is its abbreviation? What is new here in Melodies? How 
many parts of the. measure does the half rest occupy? 

FIVE FINGER EXERCISES, OR TECHNICS. 

After learuing No. 15, according to the directions, I should say to the 
pupil, place the thumb of the right hand on middle C, the first finger will 
then be over D, the second over E, the third over F, and the fourth over 
Gr. Now press them all down firmly — now raise only the thumb, and strike 
with it about as fast as quarter notes. Now keep all down but t,ne first 



]VEeth.od of Teaching. 



finger, and strike with that — now all but the second — now the third, now the 
fourth. Now place the little finger of the left hand on the C one 
octave below middle C, the thumb will be over Gr, and the other fingers over, 
D, E, and F. Press them all down; then exercise one at a time as you did 
with those of the right hand. Do not let any key up but the one you are J 
striking. Try both hands together, keeping the fingers properly curved. 
Now turn to page 45 and you will find this very exercise; also No. 16, the 
first five finger exercise, and directions with regard to them. I should not 
expect the pupil to like technics at first, because they are exercises that ! 
embody particular difficulties of execution, in the most concise manner, [ 
without any attempt to be tuneful, or in any way musically agreeable; 
but as the pupil experiences the advantage they certainly will be to his 
execution, he will become more and more willing to practice them daily, ' 
and will at last come to like them. In this holding down exercise, the 
finger that is striking should be kept going until it begins to be tired — | 
perhaps thirty or forty times — and those that are weakest should receive 
most attention. 

Before playing No. 16, I should say.give me a sound eight counts or two 
quadruple measures long, and then call attention to the way such tones are 
represented in this lesson. 

At Nos. 17, 18, and 19, the new things are so obvious that the pupil 
will probably see them himself, excepting, perhaps, the measures in No. 
19 that are not full, which I should explain by saying that when a piece 
begins with a part of a measure, it always ends with a part of a measure 
also, and that both of these parts are always equal to a full measure. In 
what kind of time or measitre is this lesson written? With what tone does 
the treble commence? What finger gives it? (I should ask same of base.) 
What degree of the treble staff stands for B? What for A ? What for 
G? What degree of the base staff stands for D? What for E? It 
might be well here to let the pupil make with a pencil on a piece of paper, 
the two staves, and write the names of the tones on the lines and spaces 
that represent their pitch, thus : 



t 



G_ 



¥ 



P 



Play the treble, (of either of these lessons,) naming the intervals as you 
make them. Do the same with the base. With how many parts of a 
.measure does No. 19 commence? With how many parts does it close? 

.SECTION. REPEAT. 

At No. 20, I should simply say that a piece of musie is often divided 
into two or more parts, which are called sections, and that when a section 
is to be played twice, dots are placed at the end of it, and form what is 
called a Repeat. Double bars, or larger single bars usually indicate the 
sections. Of how many sections does No. 20 co7isist? Mow many measures 
in eaeh section? How is the first 'measure filled in the treble? (Ans. By 
quarter notes.) The second? Third? Fotirth? 

REVIEWING. 

I should have the pupil review in this part of the book about twenty 
lessons, dropping off old ones as he adds new ones, but keeping about three 
pages in practice. If the lessons are well learned, this will be neither a 
long nor disagreeable task. I think for the present about one-eighth of the 
time allotted to practice, should be given to the daily exercises of technics, 
aud about one-eighth to reviewing. More than this will be required by 
and by. 

PREPARATORY SINGING. 

At No. 21, the pupil commences singing — not the study of singing, 
though it might be well to correct any faults that could be corrected 
without turning him too much from the main work. The idea of singing 
thus with the playing, is to tune the voice, and prepare it for the more 
careful study that comes by and by. 

No. 22 is the second of a duet for the piano, and brings forward no new 



thing excepting position of the pupil at the instrument, and the term 
"secondo." All culture in the direction of good taste in the performauce of 
these pieces at this stage of the pupil's progress, will have a most salutary 
effect on his symmetrical growth. 

At No. 23, new tones, new positions, treble clef for left hand, and the 
term " priino," are the new topics, all of which will be easily introduced and 
understood. Both parts of these duets are to be practiced in their order, 
as the other lessons are; then if convenient, together, by two pupils, or, 
perhaps, by teacher and pupil. Duets help to the appreciation of fuller 
harmony, and in other ways are beneficial. Upon what degree of the tipper 
staff is the first note of this lesson placed? What is the name of the tone 
here represented by the second added line above? How many octaves above 
middle C? What degree of the staff is the third note %ipon? (Ans. First 
added spaee above.) What is the name of the tone that this degree stands 
for? 

KEY NOTE. 

Before playing No. 24, I should play a strain in one part that includes 
tones enough to give a clear and full idea or feeling of the key of G, (you 
can do this with seven tones, though it takes eight to make a complete scale,) 
perhaps like this : 



ES 



0--^- 



a *~d 



m 



3E 



-*-*-■ 



0-4 



Stopping on some other than the key note. I would then say, does this 
sound well for a stopping place or ending? Is it a good home? If the 
perceptions of the pupil are so dull that he does not object to D as a 
stopping place, I would repeat the example in various ways until he 
does object, for no one can be a musician without perceptions, or as is 
commonly said, a a musical ear," sufficient for this. When the pupil fully 
feels that G is the satisfactory resting place or kome, I should say that for 
that reason G is called the key note of such a strain. To make this still 
more clear, it ,may be a good plau to play all over the piano, using only the 
white keys or the tones of the key of C, and still better to let the pupil 
do it. 

F SHARP. KEY NOTE G. SIGNATURE. 

I would now ask the pupil to strike the lower black key of each group 
of three black keys, and after his doing it would tell him that they are all 
name'd F sharp. I would then play a strain, using F sharp instead of F, 
perhaps like this : 




I would then ask if G is the satisfactory resting place now. It is not 
difficult to lead the pupil from here to find out that Gr is the home or key 
note, when F sharp is taken instead of F. This presenting the thing itself 
for the pupil's investigation, makes him know it a great deal better than 
telling him, for example, that when there is one sharp the key note is 
Gr; and when there is none, the key note is G. We certainly should 
endeavor to make our pupils as intelligent as possible about the things 
they do, or in other words we should make them know as much as wc can 
of the theory, science and art of each, and this is perhaps the most 
important and distinctive object of this Curriculum. If the pupil should 
say, why do you have any key note but G, — cannot any tune be played or 
sung so that the key note will be G? I should reply, some tunes sound a 
great deal better to be played or sung, so that the key note will be Gr, and 
this is the only reason why such tones are sometimes used as make Gr the key 
note. The pupil having received this truth, will, when playing or singing 
in the key of Gr, have some intelligent idea with regard to the F sharp, 
and will correet easily the mistakes that he will be sure to make at first, in 
trying to go to that tone,, while looking on his book. I should now teach 
him that the character called a sharp, placed at tne beginning of a 
piece of music, upon that degree of the staff which has hitherto stood for 
F, modifies it, and all other lines or spaces standing for F s so that they now 
mean F sharp, and that the sharp so placed is ealled a signature or sign 
that the key note is Gr, or as is commonly said, it then becomes the signature 
of the key of Gr. Saying that the sharp at the beginning sharps all the 
F's, although afterwards convenient, does not seem to me to be at first so 



8 



Method of Teaching. 



clear a statement. It may be proper here to say that the absence of any 
character of this kind is said -to be the signature of the key of C. If 
the pupil should discover at this point that there are different kinds of 
seconds, thirds, &c, and should ask questions about thciu, I would simply 
say that there are such differences, but that we do not study about them at 
present. ■ 

Can we make a satisfactory ending of a piece of music on any tone? 
(meaning any tone as to pitch.) What is the technical name for that tone 
on which we can stop with the most satisfaction? When only the tones 
made by the white keys are used, what is the key note? When F sharp is 
used instead of F in a tune, what is the hey note? What is the signature 
or sign that the key note is G? What does the sharp so placed do? Does 
it modify any other lines or spaces of the staff? What is the signature to 
the key of 0? (The answer to this question is usually " natural.") Does 
this matter of key note and signature belong to Rhythmies, Melodies, or 
Dynamics? Is the sharp a Rhythmie, Melodic, or Dynamic character ; 
that is, does it have to do with the length, or the pitch, or the power of 
sounds ? What interval is produced by E and F#? What by F# and G? 
What by G and A ? A and B? B and C? 

SEXTUPLE MEASURE. DOTTED WHOLE NOTES. 

I should introduce these at No. 25, by asking the pupil to give me four 
tones, each six counts long, lie counting while he plays. I would then tell 
him the name of the measure he had just made, and show him the dotted 
whole note that stands for a tone six beats long. I would endeavor to lead 
the pupil to see that the natural accent in this kind of time, falls upon the 
first and fourth parts of the measure. This can be done, of course, by 
presenting the thing itself, that is, playing or singing something with those 
accents rather prominent. 

What new things have we here in Rhythmics? What one note will fill 
a measure in sextuple time? What two? What other two? What three? 
W hat other three ? What four? What other four? Still what other 
four? What five? (It will be a good plan to have the pupil make other 
combinations, playing them as he makes them.) Where does accent naturally 
fall in this kind of measure? 

At No. 27, we have the metronome mark indicating the time of 
"andantino." I should, however, explain to the pupil that andantino not 
only signifies this movement, but also a rather flowing, and never loud or 
energetic style. The melodies are now beginning to have more meaning, 
all of which should be developed. For andantino and other musical terms, 
use the dictionary of musical terms. No new topics to be introduced until 
we arrive at No. 30, but a far more important work is to be done, viz: 
learning all the lessons rightly. I suppose we shall all agree that it is a 
o-ood plan in giving out the new lessons, to take one part at a time, and have 
the pupil work at the hard places until they are almost within bis reach, so 
to speak, and not leave him until the lesson is so far advanced, that we arc 
sure he will go on in the right way, and with feelings of encouragement, 
confidence and pleasure. I suppose that we shall also agree with regard to 
the directions over the lessons that they are useful, and should be kept 
constantly in the pupil's mind. 

At No. 30, we have base clef for upper staff, upon which is the D next 
above middle C. It seems to me a good plan to have the pupil decide 
where piano, forte, or mezzo, will make the lesson sound best, as this cultivates 
his taste and power of expression. 

At No. 31, I should explain that "allegretto" not only means the 
movement indicated by the metronome mark, but a cheerful style. The 
new tones and positions will easily be explained and understood. 

C SHARP. KEY NOTE D. 

At No. 32, I "should ask the pupil to strike all the lower black keys 
of each group of two. These tones I should name C sharp. I should now 
play a strain of music, making use in it of F# and C#, instead of F and 

pil &fe 



C, perhaps like this: 
then say to the pupil 



% 



t=t 



3E 



I would 
"if you 



do not like this for an ending, end it yourself," which he might do either 
with the instrument or with his voice. He could hardly fail in this way to 
find out satisfactorily what the key note to a tune is, when F# and C# arc 
used, instead of F and C. If all this is done without a book, so much the 



better; then turning to the lesson, I would point out the way that the sharps 
are placed to make the staff represent the key of D, including the fact 
mentioned before, that every line or space of either staff usually representing 
F and C, are now made to represent FJf and Off, although the sharps are 
placed on but two of them in each staff. After having the pupil try over 
the lesson once or twice, I would ask : 

What is the key note of this lesson? What tones are used in it that are 
not used in the key of C? What are omitted that arc used there? What 
tones make the key of D? What the key of G? What the key of G? 
What is the signature to the key of D? (Two sharps.) What is the 
signature to the key of G? What to the key of C? 

If the pupil should notice that there are no black keys on the piano 
between E and F, and B and C, and should ask the reason for it, I should 
think this as good a place as any to tell him that the tones made by the 
white keys, although they succeed each other so pleasantly, (I should here 
illustrate by playing moderately up and down, one or two octaves,) and 
seem to be so much alike as to the intervals between each two, are in point 
of fact quite different in this very respect; the interval produced by E and 
F, and also the one produced by B and C being but half as great as those 
produced by the other white keys — in fact that they arc just like those which 
are produced by a black key, and the next white one. You notice, fellow 
teacher, that I generally tell the pupil when the things to be learned are 
so simple or obvious that the investigating and finding out plan, is not 
necessary. But I tell him here for exactly the opposite reason, viz : because 
this difference in intervals is so hard for the beginner to perceive. If, 
however, you think differently, you have only to present the subject 
according to its nature, and let him investigate it. 

STEPS, AND HALF STEPS. 

I should add that although there are two kinds of seconds, we do not notice 
the fact, in speaking of them, but continue to call them all simply seconds, 
for the present, excepting on certain occasions, when the larger seconds are 
called steps, and the smaller half steps. It might be well here to ask the 
pupil to touch a succession of white keys, naming the intervals as he 
produces their steps or half steps, then do the same with the black and 
white. He will soon notice that from a black key to the next black one in 
the same group is a step, and that from any one to the very next, black or 
white, is always a half step. 

What is the key note of No. 33. ? What is the signature? In what kind 
of time is it? 

MARCATO. CRESCENDO. 

At No. 34 I should have the marcato effect heard by striking any key of 
the piano, and then lifting off the finger and hand suddenly. After seeing 
this done several times in the right way, I should point to the dots under 
and over some of the notes here, as signs of the marcato, or marked style 
of playing.- I should then have some tone or tones given, beginning piano 
and gradully increasing to forte, and then, showing the signs of this, we 
should be ready for the lesson. 

At No. 36 I-would ask : What degree of the staff is the first note in the 
treble placed on? (Ans. Second added space.) What is the name of the 
tone there represented? Does mareato belong to Rhythmies, Melodies, or 
Dynamics? To which department does the crescendo belong? What should 
be the name of the rest that is as long as a dotted half note $ 

Let me hope that not only these five finger exercises will be learned in 
their order, but that all the new things will be fairly tested, according to 
the suggestions that are made with regard to them. 
G SHARP. KEY NOTE A. 

At 38, I should introduce the new tone in the way already mentioned; 
also the new key note. 

What is the signature of this key? What tones are not used in it that 
are used in the key of C? What tones belong and sound pleasantly. here, 
that are not found in the key of C? What degrees of the treble staff are 
modified by sharps ? What tones do they stand for now ? (Ask same of 
base.) How muck higher is the tone that one of these sharped lines or 
spaces stands for, than the tone it stands for when no sharp affects it. 
(Now we have an occasion for the word half step?) 



HVEetliocL of Teaching, 



9 



DA CAPO. FINE. 

At No. 39, 1 should simply tell the pupil that Da Capo, or its abbreviation 
D. C.j means go back to the beginning and play to the word Fine, which 
means finis, or end. I should endeavor to feel all the time that my great 
work is not to explain, although that is important in its place, but rather 
to assist the pupil to do, intelligently and thoroughly, everything that he 
undertakes. Beyond explaining the word " allegretto," which may be found 
in the dictionary of musical terms, the manner of introducing the new 
things has been shown, until wc reach No. 45, when I should have him 
play all the tones named D sharp, and perhaps let him find out for himself 
that when D}f, G}f, C}f, and Fjf are used, instead of D, Gr, C, and F, the 
key note is E. 

At No. 48 I should remind the pupil that a curved line connecting two 
notes on the same degree of the staff is called a tie, and should now tell 
him that a 

LEGATO MARK 

Is just such a line connecting notes on different degrees of the staff, and 
that it means link the tones closely together. It might be added that 
when the legato mark connects but two or three notes, it is in good taste to 
accent the first one of those so connected. 

At No. 42 the remark to the pupil says, " Do not throw the hand up at 
the rests, &c." This, of course, does not mean keep the tones sounding 
through the rests, but refers to the rather important matter of 

MANNER AT THE PIANO. 

It is the experience of every one, that he who excites your sympathies 
by appearing to labor very hard while playing, or who undergoes various 
unpleasant contortions of the features at the hard places, who moves his 
head, body, or arms unnecessarily, or who makes an undulating motion of 
the wrist, lifting the hand as though the ends of the fingers were sticking 
to the keys, as well as he who is rigid like a block of stone at the instrument, 
detracts much by these things from the pleasure and usefulness of his 
musical performances. I should, therefore, think it a part of my duty to 
see that the manner of my pupil at the piano is not ostentatious, but natural 
and graceful. 

FIRST TIME. SECOND TIME. 

The pupil will easily see that the first ending, (which consists of two 
measures, and is marked "first time,") is omitted in the repeat, and the 
second ending substituted. I should ask questions about key note, 
signature, time, intervals, &c., at each time. The introduction of the keys 
of B, F# and C#, would be accomplished according to the plan already 
made known. 

At No. 56 I should show that E# and F are produced by the same white 
key on the instrument ; t and in No. 58 that B}f and C are also made by the 
same key. 

At No. 60 we begin at the key of C again; familiarity with intervals 
will now be still more important to those who wish to become intelligent as 
well as independent players. 

B FLAT. 

Before playing No. 65 I should say, "the tones produced by the black 
keys (and some of the white ones) are named by the word fiat, as well as 
sharp; for example, the tone that is sometimes named A}f, is also sometimes 
named B flat, and BJ2 is required instead of B when we have F for the key 
note. This I would illustrate, if necessary, by playing what would show 
the tones of the key of F. 

Sow many tones named B flat are there on your piano ? (Touch them.) 
What is the signature of the key of F? On what degree of the treble staff 
is the flat placed in the signature? Docs it modify all the other degrees of 
this staff that usually stand for B? How much does it modify them? Does 
it make them, stand for tones a half step higher or a half step lower? 
What tone is found in this key that does not belong to the key of C? What 
tones are in the key of E that do not belong to the key of C? What in the 
key of B? What in the key of F#? What in the key of G$? What 
is the signature of the key of G%? What of F%? B? E? How many 
degrees of the staff are changed from their original signification, when the 
signature consists of seven sharps ? Are they changed to stand for higher tones 



or lower ones? How much higher? (Similar questions might be asked of 
the keys of C#, FJf, B, E, &c.) What tones mahe the hey of C? What 
tones make the key of C%? (Similar questions might also be asked of the 
other keys.) 

Until we reach No. 60, there has been no extension of the hand to reach 
a larger interval than a fifth. When the hand has been properly placed, 
the fingers have been exactly' over the keys to be touched. Now, there 
must be a little extension of the fingers and thumb to make a sixth on the 
hand. The interval of the sixth does not really occur until No. 62, although 
the extension spoken of is required at 60 and 61. 

EIGHTH NOTES. 

At No. 66 I would say, play four measures in double time, and give two 
tones to each count; (take any pitch.) These tones may be represented 
by what are called eighth notes, (pointing to them in the lesson.) 

Do the new things of this lesson belong to Rhythmics, Melodies, or 
Dynamics? Hoio many eighth notes occupy one part of a measure? 
How many would fill a whole measure ? How many eighths are equal to 
one quarter? How many to one-half? 

At No. 69 I should say, that the whole rest (a little block just under 
the line) not only represents silence as long as a whole note, but is used to 
fill a measure in any kind of time. 

What degree of the staff is the first note of the treble in No. 71 placed 
on? What the second? The third? Fourth? &c. What is the 
movement of the duet ? About how fast by the metronome ? 

SYNCOPATION. 

Before playing No. 72, I would introduce the new key, by having the 
pupil strike every black key next below E; then giving its name, and 
showing that B flat and E flat, instead of B and E, makes B flat the key 
note. If the pupil should ask, at any time, why certain tones make a key 
or key note, I would say, "that will be explained by and by, let the fact 
suffice now." I should then ask the pupil to select any pitch, and play 
four measures, each to consist of quarter, half and quarter notes, just in 
that order. I would then say that good taste requires that when a tone 
begins on an unaccented part of a measure, and continues through the 
accented part it is to be accented, and is then called a syncopated note, or a 
syncopation. I would then, have him play these four measures, in that 
style. 

Which are the unaccented parts of quadruple measure ? What is a tone 
called that begins on one of these unaccented parts, and continues through 
an accented? How in such a case should that part of the measure usually 
unaccented be performed? What is this kind of tone called? To which 
department of music does Syncopation belong? In which meamre docs 
Syncopation occur in this lesson? In which part? Are there Syncopations 
in the base? (Be careful to give the natural accent in the base, and the 
syncopated accent in the treble.) At No. 75 I should simply say that 

APPOGGIATURAS 
arc the signs of short tones frequently introduced into instrumental music, 
and that each one usually takes its time from the note that follows 
it. Do not begin the appoggiatura before the base note that occurs on the 
same part of the measure, but let them commence exactly together. I 
should question the pupil at every lesson on all the important things 
connected with it, in the manner already described. The introduction of 
the new keys made by tones named with the word "flat," would be done 
in the way before mentioned, viz : playing the new tones, then showing how 
they make the key notes, and how to modify the staff so that it will 
represent them. 

PLAYING BY EAR, 

As it is called, is sometimes objected to, but I am inclined to think it an 
advantage, especially when connected with a regular course of musical 
study, for it strengthens the memory, and gives more freedom and 
naturalness to the expression, and last but not least, it delivers the pupil 
from the bondage of being always obliged to have his "notes" when 
performing for the pleasure of others. 

VARIETIES OF MEASURE. 

At No. 85 I would say, " thus far a quarter note, or the value of a 



10 



!M!etliocl of Teaching. 



quarter note, has filled each part of a measure, or in more popular language, 
we have had thus far a quarter note, or its value, to each count." We may 
adopt any other note for the standard, that is, to represent the tone that fills 
one part of a measure. In this lesson an eighth note may be said to be 
the standard, that is, an eighth (or its value) is taken to stand for so much 
of the music as occupies one of the six parts of the measure, so the figures 
at the beginning say six-eighths in the measure. It happens in this kind 
of measure that it is sometimes more convenient to count two than six. 
It will be in this case, unless the piece is played rather slowly. It may 
perhaps here be said that this piece could be represented just as well with 
quarters for standards, but that eighths are used because it is customary, 
and because in more difficult music there are good reasons for "varieties of 
measure." As a dotted half note stands for a tone as long as three- 
quarters, so a dotted quarter stands for a tone as long as three-eighths. 
Dal Segno says, "to the sign," instead of Da Capo, "to the head," but 
both end at the word Fine. 

How many hinds of measures are there ? How many varieties of each 
hind could we have? (Ans. As many as there are kinds of notes.) What 
hind and variety of measure would be indicated by the figures § ? (Ans. 
Double measure, half variety; meaning two half notes, or the value of two 
half notes in each measure.) What by \? What by %? What by %? 
I? I? What by f ? % ? % ? What by % ? % ? § ? (We might have whole 
variety, as would be indicated by '(, ?, &c, but it is not used. 

I would call attention to the eighth rests at No. 89, and their difference 
in shape from the quarter rests. After playing 97 I would question about 
signatures, keys, intervals, &c, as was done at 65. At the lessons in five, six, 
and seven fiats, I shonld say; it is seen here that some of these lessons 
are the same in sound as some of those in seven, six, and five sharps, the 
difference being only in the representation. This difference may be called 
an enharmonic difference or change. For example, it is said to be an 
enharmonic change from F sharp to Gr fiat. The teacher may, if he chooses, 
explain that there is a real difference between these two tones, but that it 
is so slight as not to be taken into account in tuning pianos, melodeons, 
&c, nor indeed in any ordinary music. With 98 concludes the learning of 
the first series of exercises for daily practice; the practice of them should, 
however, be kept up until the pupil reaches the second series. 

STACCATO. 

I would only add to what is printed at No. 100, by saying that I should 
exercise the pupil a good deal without book, on the Staccato produced by 
drawing off the fingers. At 103 the last note of each measure in the treble 
should be accented, and in nearly all the measures the first unaccented. 
This is another illustration of the fact that the natural accent of the 
measure is often thrown aside for higher and more tasteful expressions. 

CADENCE. TRANSPOSITION. 

At No. 106 I should tell the pupil that any little phrase that will make a 
good ending -either to a section or a piece of music, is called a Cadence. I 
should then play or sing a little melody, perhaps like this: 



i 






■&+ 



^ 



EE^E 



-±3t. 



5= 



-*— e- 



I would then give it again, beginning on B, (which would make it the 
key of Gr,) and would ask if it is the same tune. The answer being given, 
I would ask if it differs in any respect from the first. If the pupil 
perceives that it does differ in respect to pitch — that it is the same tune, 
only higher in one case than in'the other, I should say that the process of 
performing the same piece at a different pitch is called transposition, and I 
should try very hard to impress him with the idea that to transpose well, is 
one of the most useful and elegant accomplishments of the musician, and 
to you, fellow teachers, I would say that if this matter is well followed up 
from this simple beginning, there is no doubt of its success. It may, 
however, be best for you to get your pupil to transpose other phrases or 
short simple melodies beside these, and I would try to have him perceive 
how pleasant this change is from the key in which he is playing to the one 
which is a fifth or fourth from it. 

At No. 110 ^the dotted quarter occupies one part and a half, of the 
measure. It is usually difficult to get right the note which follows this 



dotted quarter, and which must come in on the last half of one part of the 
measure. My idea is that it should rather be felt than calculated, and 
I have made some preparation in the lesson for this result, as you will see. 
Some device like counting one and two, and one and two, &c, may sometimes 
be necesssary, but I should prefer to accomplish the object by getting the 
right idea of the sound in the mind; and here let me say that 

KEEPING TIME 

Is an interior operation. If the pupil thinks too fast, the counts or hand 
will go too fast. They are, like the hands of a clock, but outward indexes 
of the controlling power, therefore I should try to have my pupils feel the 
right time, using the hands or counts as regulators, and to aid, perhaps, in 
keeping the place in the music. By the time the pupil reaches the second 
series for daily practice, it is probable that he will be ready to give up the 
first. I should endeavor to interest him in transposing, accenting, and 
giving the staccato and other expressions to these exercises, as they are of 
great importance. Those commencing at No. 121 are very valuable in 
promoting flexibility of fingers. I should keep up the daily practice of 
this second series, at least until reaching the fourth series. 

RITARDANDO. 

At 126 I should show the pupil the effect called Ritardando e diminuendo, 
(gradually slower and softer,) and point to the abbreviation of the phrases. 

What interval is formed here by the two tones heard together in the 
treble? What hey are you in? What hind of time? Which variety of 
double time? 

At 127 I should say that rondo movement here signifies that the 
lesson is in the style that pieces called Rondos are usually written in. So 
it may be said of the lessons marked "Waltz movement," that they mean 
in the time and character of waltzes, &c. 

THE SCALE. 

Before playing No. 128, I should say to the pupil, play the tones of the 
key of Cjfrom middle C to the next C above. These eight tones make 
what is called the scale; in this particular case the scale of C. Now 
commence at Gr and play the tones of the key of Gr in the same way. Of 
course he will now leave out F, as that tone does not belong to the key of 
Gr, and will play F# instead of it. This is the scale of Gr. Name the tones 
that make the scale of C. Name those that make the scale of Gr. Now 
the tones of scales, besides having the letteral names that you have just 
given here, have the names of numbers applied to them in the following order, 
viz: the key note is always one, the next tone two, the next three, and 
so on up to eight, and for some purposes they go still higher as nine, ten, 
&c, but the scale is complete with eight. I should then ask him to tell me 
what interval is made by one and two of either of these scales. What by 
two and three, three and four, four and five, five and six, six and seven, 
and seven and eight; and thus lead him to observe and know the order of 
the steps and half steps as they are always found in this succession of 
tones. JBehoeenwhat tones do half steps occur in the scale? Where are 
steps found? In practicing No. 129 be careful of the fingering. It is 
hardly necessary to repeat that the great work of the teacher all the time 
is to make the pupil do well, for by doing he will not only improve all his 
musical powers, but will the better understand. At the proper time, I would 
ask such questions as the following: 

What tone is one in the scale of C? What is two? Three? Four? 
Five? Six? Seven? Eight? What tone is one in the scale of G? 
What is two? Three? Four? &c, (and the same of the other scales.) 
Do the half steps occur between three and four and between seven and eight 
in all these scales? Is it necessary that they should so occur to mahe the 
scale sound right? Coidd this order be so preserved without the tones made 
by the black keys, and named by flats and sharps? 

It may now be told that the occurrence of the steps and half steps, put 
in this order, is what makes this series so agreeable, and it is to make 
these steps and half steps occur in this way, that certain tones are used. 
Regarding the scale then as a tune, it is here transposed by fifths through 
all the keys, the same tune having the same intervals in the same order in 
each case. You will find that successions of tones or runs, sometimes 
commence and end with other tones than one or eight. For example, in 
the key of C you may play every tone in succession from Gr to Gr, (an octave,) 



Method of Teaching. 



11 



or from D to D, or E to E, &c., but if you play only tones that belong to 
the key of C, they will be simply different forms of the scale of C. 

What intervals are formed by the left hand part in iVb. 127 ? 

At 130 an octave or interval of an eighth occurs in the base. These 
pieces, with words to them, may be sung as duets, although it is expected 
that they will usually be performed by one person. Of course an 
important object of the practice here is to get the wrist motion, and 
another is an even and smooth running of the scale one octave. Learners 
sometimes like to strike with one hand before the other, when both should 
start together. Now is the time to regulate all such things. You perceive 
that about the same kind of work is to be done in each key. 

As we go from one hey and scale to another, by what interval is our 
transposition ? 

It will be well to question with reference to the peculiarities of each 
piece. Each lesson on page 63 is to be learned in its order. If convenient 
to have three players, the three numbers will sound well together. At 
No. 172 another very important series of daily exercises commences. It is 
probable that the second series may now be given up. I should, however, 
keep the third with this for the present. On page 68 are three more 
lessons that may be played together, but each one is important for some 
particular purpose. 

■ In No 184 I should endeavor to have the pupil avoid the two faults 
common in appoggiatura playing, viz : striking the appoggiatura before the 
note in the left hand which comes on the same part of the measure, and 
keeping it down while striking the large note. In No. 185 I should have 
the pupil play so as to make the melody sound like a song; and in No. 186 
make the repeating notes even and distinct. It is good to exercise the 
imagination in these innocent ways, and I should have him think of sleigh 
bells in the first, of a song in the second, and the steps of the horses in 
the third. 

- HARMONY. THE COMMON CHORD. 

Before playing No. 187 I should say, give me middle C. Now the tone 
which is a third above it; now that which is a fifth above it, and lastly, 
that which is an eighth above it. Now combine these tones 
and give them together with one hand, if the hand is 



i 



3= 



give 
large enough; I would then say, " any tone combined with 
those that are a third, fifth, and eighth above it 7 make, when heard together, 
what is called the common chord. As these tones arc reckoned from C, the 
chord made by them is said to be the common chord of C. Play all the 
common chords of C that you can find on the piano; that is, take every C 
in succession for the lower tone of a common chord, (excepting, of course, 
the upper C.) Which chords sound best, those in the lower, upper, or medium 
octaves of the instrument? I would then say that the tones of chords are 
also named with the names of numbers, — that the tone from which you 
reckon is called one, the next above three, the next five, and the next eight, 
or one. I would add that iu harmony eight and one arc often spoken of as 
the same thing, and that three in one octave is three in the next, &c. — to 
illustrate, in this common chord of C, every C on the instrument is one or 
eight, every E three, and every Gr five. It may now be well to have the 
pupil understand that the letteral names describe the abstract or absolute 
pitch of tones, while the numeral names describe tones as connected or 
related with each other in families, as scales and chords. 

What is the pitch of one in the common chord of G? (Ans. C) What 
is the pitch of three ? What of five? What of eight? 

Now take Gr and play with it the tones which are a third, fifth, and 
eighth above it, and so make the common chord of Gr. 
Play every common chord of Gr. What is the pitch of one 
in the common chord of G ? What of three ? Five ? Eight ? 
We might now make a common chord with F for one, but this is perhaps 
enough to illustrate the fact that the common chord can be made at any 
pitch. The pupil by this time may have inferred that any possible 
combination of the tones C, E, Gr, C, can make only the common chord of 
C, but he would not be likely to know that some of these combinations are 
described by the terms, first position, second position, and third position, 
and this I would proceed to introduce. 



POSITIONS. 

_ Play the common chord of C with one in the left Ijand, and three five and 
eight in the right. When the combination of these tones is such that 
eight (or one) is the highest, the chord is said to be in its first position. 
Now play it so that E or three will be the highest. This is the second. 
position. Now play it so that five will be the highest. This is the third 
position. The lower note or base may be kept one in all these positions. 
Now play No. 187. If the hand is too small the one need not be doubled in 
the base. 

At No. 189 I should endeavor to make clear the important fact, that 
each tone in these lessons is named in three different ways, and for three 
different purposes; for example, the first tone in the base has one 
name for its pitch, another for its place in the key, and another for its place 
in the chord. It is Gr as to its pitch; it is five as to its place in the key or 
scale of C, and it is one as to its place in the common chord of G-. (I 
would draw this from the pupil by questions rather than tell him, if 
possible.) 

TONIO AND DOMINANT. 

At 190 I should say, one in a key or scale is in harmony called the tonio 
of that key, and five is called the dominant. A chord formed on one is 
therefore called a tonic chord, and a chord formed on five, is called a 
dominant chord. It is, however, very common to say, " Tonic" and 
"Dominant," when we mean the chord formed on those tones. I think the 
arm should be not much lifted in playing chords, unless they are to be quite 
loud. At 194 comes 

SUBDOMINANT. 

Four in a key, is called the subdominant, (under the dominant,) and the 
chord on four is the subdominant chord. I should observe the directions 
printed over the lesson, which would be all that is needful in introducing this 
chord. At the proper time I should question thus : 

What arc the names of the tones that make a common chord? What 
are the names of the tones that mahe a scale? What is the pitch of each 
tone in the scale or key of C? (Ans. One is C, two D, &c.) What is the 
pitch of the tones in the key of G? (Ans. One is Gr, two A, &c.) What 
is the pitch of one in the common chord of F? What of three? Five? 
Eight? Hoio many positions have common chords? What is highest in 
the first position? What in the second? What in the third? How many 
names has either one of the tones in this lesson, F for example? What are 
they? (Ans. F, four, and one.) What is F the name of as applied to 
this tone? What is four the name of as applied to it? What is one the 
name of as applied to it? 

I would ask similar questions of every tone in this key. The pupil will 
thus be Jed to notice, for example, that E has three for both chord and scale 
name, and that Gr has not only five for its name in the scale of C and the 
chord of C, but it is also one in the chord of Gr, and that C has two chord 
names, viz : one (in the chord of C,) and five (in the chord of F.) What 
are the names of D? What of B? All this will help the pupil to a 
clearer insight into the subject of music, and to exactness in the use of 
musical terms. 

VOICE CULTURE FOR SINGINGI. 
While I would not underrate the usefulness and general importance of 
the study of Physiology, I do not suppose it necessary to know the forms 
and names of the muscles and other organs of the fingers, hands and arms, 
in order to play upon the piano or violin, nor of the lips to play upon the 
trumpet or flute, nor of any other parts of the body in order to walk or 
dance. As might be inferred, I do not suppose it necessary to know the 
anatomy of the throat in order to sing, still it is interesting to know 
something of the way that the voice is produced, and of the organs that 
have to do with singing, and it is convenient to know some of their names. 
I therefore append, briefly, some information that I have obtained on this 
subject; and first, 

THE LUNGS, 
Something like sponges, that may be distended or compressed at pleasure, 
by filling their cells with air and breathing it out again; second, 



12 



Method of Teaching. 



THE MUSCLES, 

Abdominal and intercostal, under and at the sides of the lungs, that do 
the work of distending and compressing; third, 

THE WINDPIPE, OR TRACHEA, 

That goes from the lungs to the mouth; fourth, 

THE LARYNX, 

That holds the most important part of the vocal apparatus; fifth and sixth, 

THE PHARYNX AND MOUTH. 

Of those important organs referred to in the larynx, (the outer projection 
of the larynx is called the "Adam's apple;) the first are two muscles 
which come together something like lips, and which may be opened or shut 
at pleasure. These muscles are called the " vocal chords/' and the opening 
they make, "the glottis." It is probable that some tones of the voice are 
produced by forcing the breath between these two lips, when they are near 
together, and thus making them vibrate, and that other tones are produced 
by opening these lips wide, and somehow making the air vibrate in the 
windpipe, on the principle of the flute. If the tone could be heard just 
as it comes from the glottis, without any mouth or other cavity to resound 
in, it would probably be anything but agreeable; but fortunately it passes 
into a small "cavity called the pharynx, where it receives its musical quality; 
then into a larger one called the mouth, where it is perfected, and where it 
may be formed into words. The pharynx (which may be seen above the 
roots of the tongue at the top of the throat) being a flexible cavity, may 
be distended or contracted at pleasure, and the different qualities of tone — 
as expressive of the different emotions — joy, sorrow, &c, depend wholly upon 
the right distension or contraction of this organ. 

It is not possible to show so definitely here how I would teach singing as 
playing, because there is so much greater difference in voices than in fingers, 
nor is it possible to write lessons so exactly suited to all, for the same reason. 
At No. 199, after seeing that the position of the pupil is right, I should 
proceed to examine his voice as to quality, compass, and quantity. In 
doing this I should extend the scale here printed, or make use of other 
scales, higher or lower, according to his compass. 

DELIVERY OF THE VOICE. 

I would see first what defect there may be in the giving out or delivery 
of the voice. For this I would use the syllables, do, re, mi, &c, or " ah," 
(Mr. Bassini's word "sea," (pronounced scah,) is also excellent,) and would 
have the pupil sustain each tone with deliberation. The principal obstacles 
that I have found to giving out or delivering the tone well, are, closing too 
much the lips and teeth, raising or bulging the tongue in the mouth, and 
drawing it backward and upward into the throat. I should not now speak 
of other difficulties that I might discover, on the principle of "one thing 
at a time." 

TAKING BREATH. 

I would ask the pupil to take a full breath, by making the muscles, 
which are at the sides of the lungs and over the ribs, distend, and 
at the same time draw in and up the muscles under the lungs, as if he 
were trying to make himself as small as possible around the waist. When 
the lungs are thus filled, they seem to press upward, and to be fullest and 
most distended at the top, which is the best possible position for managing 
the breath, and for giving the singer confidence that it will not give out. 
This latter condition is, however, not fully attained, unless the 

USE -OF THE BREATH 

In singing be in the right way, and that includes the two following 
important things, viz ; making use of as little breath as possible, and holding 
the abdominal muscles firmly in their drawn in position. When the pupil 
gets well started in this subject of breathing, I should touch upon the 
subject of 

VOWEL SOUNDS. 
If practicing with "ah," I should "see that it is not "au," or like the 
vowel sound in the word "learn," but like that of the first syllable in 
"father," If using the syllables, do, re, mi, I should try to have each one 
exact and pure in its pronunciation. It is necessary that nearly all the 
important points about singing should be brought in and understood early, 



as nothing will sound well if one of them is wrong. Of course the pupil 
will not get them all right at once, but he will make a beginning, and 
will have something to work for. So at No. 200 I should begin to speak 
more definitely of the 

FORM OF TONE. 

I should say that the Pharynx may be distended so as to make the voice 
large and hollow, or it may be contracted so as to make it thin, and even 
sharp; but that in the practice of these exercises, it is best neither to 
distend nor contract the pharynx, and so not let the tone be either on the 
one side or the other. If the pupil says that his voice does not seem to 
mean anything produced in that way, I should tell him that there is nothing 
here for it to mean; that all we want now is a full, natural, simple utterance 
of these tones, correct in pitch, and exact in the pronunciation of the 
syllables applied to them. I should be very careful here, and always, to 
keep the pupil from striking under the pitch of the tone he is to sing, and 
then slide up it. 

ARPEGGIOS MELODY MADE OF CHORDS. 

this lesson I should say, play the common chord of C, 
Now play these tones one after another in any order 

This playing the tones 



Before playing 
with the right hand, 
you please, as 
of a chord one 
what is called 
chord. Make 




-F 



^£&E£ 



after another, makes 
arpeggio of the 



an 
an arpeggio of the common chord of G. Of F. After 
going over the lesson two or three times, I would say, the part you play 
here while singing is called an accompaniment. 

Wliat is the first chord in the accompaniment? What tones are sung 
with it? What are tones of chords called when played or sung after each 
other instead of all together? 

PASSING NOTES. 

Before playing No. 201 I would ask the pupil to play the common chord 
of C, and at the same time sing the tone D — holding the tone and 
striking the chord three or four times. This he would find unpleasant, 
because D does not belong to the chord of C. I would then ask him to 
play and hold the same chord, and sing from C to Gr, about as fast as 
quarter notes usually go. Now he would find the J) and F not 
unpleasant, although neither belong to the chord he is playing, and so 
would bring ont the fact that you may play or sing pleasantly, tones that do 
not belong to the chord that accompanies, if you do not dwell too long upon 
them, and these tones I would name passing notes. Some pupils need to 
practice with syllables to improve their articulation, 
most important use. 

What passing notes occur in the first measure ? 
second? What in the third? &c. 



This I regard their 



Are there any in the 



ACCOMPANYING. 

At No. 202 I would ask the pupil to strike in one chord the tones of the 
first and second measures. He would find himself making the common 
chord of C. I would then ask him to make into a chord the arpeggio in 
the third measure. He would find this the chord of F. After going 
through in this way, I would ask him to make an accompanyment to 
this lesson, by putting into chords with a base, the arpeggios it is composed 
of. 

What chord will accompany the first and second measures here? What 
the fifth and sixth ? &c. Are there any passing notes in this lesson ? 

I would have the pupil accompany with different positions of the chords. 
For example, sometimes accompanying the first and second measures with 
the first position of the chord of C, as in the previous lesson, and sometimes 
with the second position, and sometimes the third, singing, of course, the 
same melody. We might tell the pupil here, or even before this, that the 
part in a piece of music that is the most tuneful, and that the ear catches 
most readily, is called "the melody." 

PHRASING. 

To illustrate this subject at No. 203, I would read some sentence without 
observing the marks of punctuation; stopping for breath where there should 
be no pause, sometimes even between the syllables of a word. This would 
be sure to injure, if not destroy the sense and meaning of the sentence. 



Method of Teaching. 



13 



I would then say that singing through rests, and taking breath or in other 
ways making stops when there should be none, produces analagous 
unpleasant results in music. For this reason good management of the 
breath, and the ability to phrase well, are important things for the musician 
to acquire. If necessary to a more clear showing of this subject a familiar 
melody might be taken, and the unpleasant effects of wrong phrases, 
manifested by the process referred to. In this lesson the phrases are 
defined by the rests. 

How many tones in the first phrase in this lesson? How many notes f 
How many phrases in the whole lesson? 

I should give such directions as are printed over these lessons, and should 
remind the pupil of the importance of observing them when I am away. 

THE CIIORD OF THE SEVENTH. 

At 204 I should say, play the common chord of Gr, first position. Now 
let us make a new chord by playing seven here instead of eight. This is 
called the chord of the seventh. 

What is eight in the chord of G? What then will be seven? The 
common chord consists of the tones one, three^ five^ and eighty what does the 
chord of the seventh consist of? 

Now play it, but let one be the highest instead of seven. Now let three 
be the highest. Now five. These are the different positions of this chord. 
As one and eight are treated in harmony as the same, it may be said that 
the chord of the seventh is made by simply adding seven, to one, three, five, 
and eight. This is especially true in pianoforte music, where four tones are 
usually played with the hand giving the chord. 

Are we speaking here of seven of a scale or seven of a chord? What 
is seven in the scale of C? What is seven in the chord of the seventh 
of G? 

QUALITIES OF TONE. 

Before practicing No. 206 I would say, all persons who have the capacity 
to experience the different kinds or grades of joy and sorrow, fear, reverence, 
awe, &c, have the organs and powers for giving them exact and true 
expression, and the different sounds of the voice that are used for this 
purpose are technically called qualities of tone. The pharynx is the organ 
by which the qualities of tone are principally made, and when guided by a 
right understanding of this subject, and accustomed to be shaped into the 
right form to express the emotions of the singer, becomes wonderfully 
sensitive to every shade of feeling. Some singers seem to adjust the 
pharynx to produce one quality of tone, and this they never vary, except 
to make it louder and softer. If a base, he distends the pharynx perhaps, 
so that he may get the large or deep quality that he delights in, and this 
prevails, whatever may be the subject of his song. Such a persons seems 
always to be thinking of his voice, instead of what he is singing about, and 
of course never gives a true expression, excepting to words that belong to 
that quality. Others have preferences for other qualities, and their 
performances are liable to similar objections, but this one will serve for 
illustration. 

WORDS FOR SINGING. 
I should continue here by saying, that words to be good for singing, must 
be "of a kind to excite emotion ) that those which are addressed to the head 
rather than to the heart, are not fit for music. I would further say that 
some words are calculated to excite strongly, either the joyful feelings on 
the bright side, or the sad ones on the dark side, or modifications of them, 
such as boldness, grandeur, reverence, &c, while others are suited to excite 
the more quiet emotions — such as are near the line between the bright and 
the dark. The Bongs of these "summer scenes," are of this kind, though 
they all keep on the bright side of the line. I should try to check such 
tendencies as the pupil might have while singing them, either to distend the 
pharynx too much, and so produce too dark a tone, or to contract it too 
much, and so err on the other side. It should here be said that when the 
Pharynx distends, the Larynx should descend, and vice versa. By observing 
the outer projection of the larynx, while gradually changing from a bright 
tone to a somber one, it can be known whether this is so. Distending the 
pharynx and raising the larynx at the same time, shows the tone to be 
produced in an injurious manner. 



I should endeavor to have the pupil perceive the true correspondence 
that exists in the nature of things between a certain emotion and the kind 
of sound or quality of tone which is its natural expression. This might be 
illustrated, if necessary, by calling to his mind the kind of tone that would 
naturally be made use of in speaking under different circumstances; for- 
example, suppose any one deeply impressed and excited by the sublimity of 
the Falls of Niagara, were to utter some exclamation while gazing upon 
them, such as "how grand," "how sublime," and you were to analyze, 
you would find that the quality of tone in which these words were uttered, 
would be exactly correspondent to the emotion that caused them, and the 
pharynx would be properly distended to produce this result. 

Let this same person look upon a little brook, rippling and dancing 
down the hill side, and with real pleasure say, "how pretty," the voice 
will be thinner, and the pharynx more contracted, for the quality of tone 
will be exactly correspondent to the emotion which is experienced. 
How untortunate that in so much singing this naturalness is thrown off, and 
words are compelled to be united to qualities of tone that they have no 
affinity for, while true and correspondent companions are rent asunder, as, 
for example, the rich, deep voice, already alluded to, whose quality of tone 
is always suited to louder or softer expression of the grand or somber — let 
him sing of flowers or the happiness of children, or any of those bright 
things which give us delight, and while the words may say they are bright 
aud beautiful, the tone will say they are ponderous, .somber, or dark; or it 
may be that while the words are suited to win, the quality of tone commands. 
You will notice that the pleasure derived from such a performance is in the 
voice abstractly, or in the tune, and not in the higher thing, viz : the subject 
of the song. There can be only pain where one hears the words and 
knows their meaning, and desires to be moved by their true expression, and 
it is not given. If the pupil says, ought I not to sing always with the 
pleasantest tone that I can produce, I should say no — the tone that 
corresponds to, aud expresses grief is not so pleasant as the one that 
expresses joy, and yet it should always be used where grief is to be 
expressed. 

It is proper here to say that examples from the teacher, by singing words 
with right and wrong qualities of tone, are usually of great use to the pupil. 
When 'words for music take the form of description in order to excite 
emotion, the singer should let the imagination bring the scene to his mind, 
and thus come under its influence as far as he can. It is probably understood 
that I would not advise any one to come under the influence of words that 
excite low, coarse, or impure emotions, even though the tune to which they 
are set may be beautiful and attractive, for that would be something like 
seeking the companionship of an evil person, because he is dressed in fiue 
clothes. 

REGISTERS. 

I will state what seem to be the facts about this subject, and will leave 
those who make use of this book to teach them according to the voice and 
needs of the pupil. Most voices, whether male or female, go from their 
lowest tone, up to the neighborhood of middle C, (say from middle C to 
the Gr next above,) with a peculiarly firm and masculine kind of voice, 
technically called the lower or ehest register, then a rounder and more fluty 
kind of voice begins and continues to about one octave above middle C, and 
this is called in women's voices the medium register, and in men's voices 
the falsetto. At about this point another change takes place, and the voice 
assumes again a firmer and more ringing quality, which continues upward 
through the remainder of its compass. This is called in women's voices 
the upper register, but in men's voices not named, as it is almost never used. 
Indeed men use the second register or falsetto but little, and many low 
voices not at all, the lower or chest register being that which includes almost 
all their available tones. Some female voices make excellent use of the 
few tones of the chest register that are allotted to the sex, while others 
use it too much and too high, and still others, who from natural organism 
or neglect, have so little strength in its tones, that they make but little use 
of it. The medium and upper registers are consequently the most important 
to the female voice. For such voices as need to pass well from the lower 
to medium registers, and vice versa the first six exercises are prepared. 
The directions for their practice are very simple, but the practice itself is 
often slow in its results. 



14 



Method, of Teaching. 



It is not desirable that the break from one register to the other should 
be removed, for by it beautiful effeets are sometimes produced. The great 
work is equalizing these registers, and it is accomplished by practicing on 
the lower tones of the medium register, until they become more firm like 
those of the lower, and modifying the upper tones of the lower register 
until they come nearer the quality of the medium. The pupil will find 
that this can be done by getting right control of the pharynx and other 
organs of the voice. I should endeavor to keep the pupil, who needs this 
practice, patiently at it, a little while at a time for some weeks j perhaps 
months. In this way, only, ean habits be formed — habits that will make 
the doing of things seem to be without volition. Thought and practice 
make a form or home into which, at the proper time, habit comes to 
dwell. 

VOWEL AND CONSONANT ELEMENTS. 

After practicing awhile on No. 215, I should have the pupil practice 
also o£her vowel sounds in the same way, as "au," "oo," the vowel sound 
in "hat," the one in "learn," and the one in "live." After practicing 
the consonants, as directed at No. 216, I should add combinations to be 
given in the same way, such as "md," "rmd," "rmds," "rmdst," "tr," 
"str," &c, (the r to be a little rolled in the last two.) 

ENUNCIATION. PRONUNCIATION. ARTICULATION. 

I would here say that enunciation refers to emitting words, and applies 
especially to consonants, and that pronunciation refers to the forms of 
words, and applies especially to vowels; while articulation may be said to be 
the successive utterance of these elements as they occur in syllables. It 
will not be necessary to speak of each number here, as the directions over 
them are explicit, only I should now give more attention to daily exercises — 
perhaps one-fifth of the time allotted for practicing. 

What is the ehord in the first measure of No. 221 ? Which position? 
What is the second? Third? (See. (The introduction of sixteenth notes 
at No. 222 will now be easily accomplished.) How many sixteenths are 
equal to a whole? Uow many to a half? To a quarter? To an eighth? 
(Point out single sixteenths; also groups of two, and groups of four.) 

RESUME. 

The instrumental lessons up to No. 187 were to aid the pupil in 
acquiring the requisite skill and knowledge to commence successfully the 
study of harmony, and through that to understand more fully the structure 
of all the music he plays and sings — to have a more interior acquaintance 
with this art than heretofore. 

From No. 187 to this point we have, as it were, laid out the work with 
which the pupil is to become equally familiar in all the keys. It consists 
of the following things, viz: Exercises and pieces for the use of the 
eommon chord and the chord of the seventh in all their positions. Tonic, 
dominant and subdominant harmonies, and scales and arpeggios one octave. 
Also exereises and pieces for forming and delivering the voice, management 
of the breath, phrasing, enunciation, pronunciation, and quality of tone, 
together with exercises for accompanying and transposition. In all these 
things, such Rhythmic, Melodic, and Dynamic combinations occur, as are 
adapted to the state of the pupil, and all are designed to improve his 
reading, execution and taste. I should daily impress the pupil's mind with 
the importance of learning to make his own accompaniments; for this 
purpose I should take great pains with the exercises designed to accomplish 
this object. I should try, also, to have hiiu realize that true improvement 
in music is like growing^ slow, and accomplished only by taking proper musical 
food and exercise, in proper quantities, and at. proper times, and by these 
means adding little by little to this muscle and that muscle of the hand 
and voeal organs, and to this power and that power both of the intellect 
and the affections. I will also mention some other things here, that may be 
applied as occasion m offers, and the first is, that the face and general 
appearance of the singer, as well as the tones he sings, should correspond 
to the emotion he is expressing. All should be in harmony — not 
exaggerated, but true and natural. It is a good plan, where it is convenient, 
to arrange the piano so that the pupil will face those who may be listening 
to him. 

The following direction, which perhaps should have been given before, 
may be of use when the pupil is inclined to increase his power of voice by 



a contraction of the throat. After adjusting the vocal organs and mouth as 
well as you ean to produce the tone, simply breathe into the glottis, making 
at first no effort to produce a loud tone. Increase the power of the tone by 
stronger breathing, rather than by changing the position of the vocal organs. 
At every key I would ask questions like the following, as well as those that 
are printed over the lessons. 

What is tonie in this hey? Dominant? Subdominant? What tones 
make the eommon chord in the tonie? What the eommon ehord in the 
dominant ? What the same in the subdominant ? Where is the ehord oj 
the seventh formed? What are the names of its tones in this key? How 
many names has eaeli tone in this hey? What are they? (Ans. Pitch 
name, scale name, and chord name.) 

I would then ask the names of particular tones, as for example, C in the 
key of Gr. 

What is its seale name? What is its ehord name in the eommon ehord 
of G? What in the ehord of the seventh of D? What is its pitch 
name? 

The pupil will probably have noticed before this, that there is but one 
pitch name to each tone, and that it never changes, whatever the key may 
be, but that the same tone may have many scale and chord names. I 
sometimes illustrate this by saying I have one name, (Gr. F. Hoot) that 
attaches itself to me under all circumstances, and may be called my absolute 
name. In my family relations I am called other names, as husband, father, 
&c. In my musical relations I am called teacher, chorister, &c. In my 
social relations, friend, neighbor, citizen, &c. Just so each tone has one 
absolute name, and several relative names. 

It is hardly necessary to say that do, re, mi ? &o., are no more the names 
of tones than the words of a piece of poetry are. The names gallopade, 
quickstep, waltz, &c, I should explain to the pupil as indicating music for 
different kinds of marehing and dancing. To introduce dotted eighth notes 
at 256 I would play a succession of tones that might be represented by 
eighths, afterwards prolonging, as it were, the first of each two, and 
shortening the last, as represented in the eleventh measure. 

How many sixteenths are equal to one-eighth? How many to a dotted 
eighth ? 

At No. 258, and at other plaees, two melodies are given to one 
accompaniment. This is to accommodate different kinds of voices. The 
lungs will increase in capacity by the practice of such exercises as these. 
At 266 it will be noticed that the left hand sometimes plays two tones of a 
chord, and the right hand two. This does not change the fact that the 
position of the chord is decided by whatever is highest. You will notice 
that in each key there is a lesson for each of the points that we wish the 
pupil to improve in. He should try hard to have each one perfect, in all 
respects, so that each one may help him firmly and surely on his way. 

At 280 I would play, or have the pupil play, either a chord or melody, 
first with two tones to a count, and then with three. I would then say 
that three tones in the time usually given to two in a piece, forms what is 
called a triplet. The triplet is represented by a group of three notes, with 
a figure three over or under it. 

On page 90 I should expeet the pupil to take great interest in finding 
out and playing the right accompaniments to Nos. 282, 283, and 284. 
When the pupil has reaehed page 100, he has learned all the scales, and is 
ready for the more severe practice of the same, for which he will be 
prepared by Nos. 314 and 315, which I should have him practice daily, 
more or less, according to the flexibility or inflexibility of his fingers and 
thumbs. 

At No. 316 transposition again. I have noticed that pupils work at this 
with great interest, as indeed they do at everything in music, if it is 
adapted to their state and attainments, and is well presented. If the pupil 
has done everything well to this point, he will willingly work at this until 
he can play 316 or 317 without hesitation in any key. The knowledge of 
the keys that this will give him, will be very useful, and indeed indispensable 
to a successful prosecution of this Curriculum. 

THOROUGH BASE. 

At No. 318, I should simply tell the pupil that he is to fill out the 
chords, the base and treble being to show, in each case, what chord and 
what position is to be played. The figure 7 denotes the chord of 



Method of Teaching. 



15 



the seventh; all the rest are commou chords. In tunes for voices the 
highest part is called treble, and the lowest base. The part next above the 
base is called tenor, and the part just below the treble is called alto. 

In these lessons which of these parts are printed? Which are you to 
add? Play the first chord in this lesson — what is the treble note? What 
the alto? What the tenor? What the base? 

I would ask similar questions in other chords of this and other lessons. 
At the last chord but one in No. 327, the 8 7 indicate quarter notes in the 
tenor, while the treble, alto, and base are half notes. 

At No. 331 I would say, when printing was not so easy, and thorough 
base more in use, it was the custom for composers of vocal music, especially 
church music, to give the accompanying organist a base, simply with the 
figures indicating the chord, written over or under it; this saved him some 
trouble in copying, and was, perhaps, easier for the organist than playing 
from all the parts. Playing from all the parts is called " playing from the 
score. J; Playing through the base, or thorough base, as it is commonly 
called, I do not regard as very important, but as it renders the pupil more 
familiar with chords, and takes but little room, I insert it. In such lessons 
as No. 332, I would have the pupil answer questions about key, kind of 
time, chord, passing notes, &c. 

I would generally keep about two series of daily exercises going at once, 
though there must be exceptions to this as a rule, from the fact that certain 
pupils need more practice in certain things. I rely, greatly upon the hints 
and directions printed over the lessons, for indicating to you, fellow teacher, 
many things that I have not room to speak of here. 

SUSPENSIONS. 

At No. 343 I should introduce this subject by having the pupil play (or 
by playing myself) suspended chords, similar to those in the lesson. I 
should do this without book or uotes, so that the pupil may learn first of the 
thing itself 

What is the first chord in the lesson the suspension of, a common chord 
or chord of the seventh? Which tone of the chord is suspended, one, three, 
or five? By what? 

The figuring of this in thorough base would, of course, be 6 5, and the 
beginning of the next measure 9 8, the beginning of the next 4 3, and 
so on. 

CHROMATIC AND DIATONIC SCALES. ACCIDENTALS. 

Before playing 344 I should say, touch every key upon the piano in 
succession, both white and black, up and down, beginning at middle C. 
This produces what is called the chromatic scale. To represent it we cannot 
modify the degrees of the staff once for all by flats and sharps in a signature 
as we do in other scales, but must do so piece by piece, wherever we want 
one of these degrees to represent a chromatic tone. (You will keep in 
mind that the staff represents the pitch of sounds, and that the only use 
of notes is to tell what degree of the staff is to be brought into action, and 
how long it is to be kept in, and therefore that sharps and flats have nothing 
really to do with notes.) Sharps and flats, when used otherwise than in 
the signature, are called accidentals. Their relative names, under these 
circumstances are, sharp one, sharp two, &c., and flat seven, flat six, &c. 
Their pitch names we have already learned. (If the pupil should here 
ask if some of these tones do not have two pitch names, I should say yes, 
as they are heard on the piano, but strictly speaking C sharp and D flat are 
not at the same pitch. If an instrument could be tuned perfectly, they 
would be shown to be different tones.) I would here say that the scale we 
have heretofore used is" called the Diatonic scale, 

Sow many hinds of intervals are there in the chromatic scale? What is 
it? Mow many in the diatonic scale? What are they? Where do they 
occur ? 

At No. 347 I should call attention to the fact that the signature makes 
a certain degree of the staff stand for F# instead of F, and that to modify j 
the staff during a piece, so that those degrees shall stand for F again, a 
new character is used, called a natural. I would here say that the natural 
is used to change the staff back again from the effect of a flat also. This 
is a good place to state to you, fellow teacher, what I understand to be the 
rule about the continuance of the effect of an accidental. Its effect 
continues from where it is written, always through the measure, (unless 



contradicted by another accidental,) and beyond, if the last note of the 
measure is on the degree affected, and the first note of the next measure on 
the same degree. For example, I should say that the first space here 

stands for F# in the second and third measures. 




m 



s 



It would mean no more, no less, if a sharp were placed before every note 
upon that space. 

INVERSIONS OF CHORDS. 

Before turning to No. 359, I would say, (after reminding the pupil that 
one and eight in harmony are regarded as the same thing,) 

How many different tones has the common chord? 

Play the three, tones that really make the common chord of C, with one 
for the lowest or base as usual; now play the same chord, but instead of 
having one for the lowest or base, as heretofore, let us have three, and let 
one go up into one of the other parts. Now let five be the base, and let 
three go up. These are called inversions of the chord — when three is the 
base, the first inversion, and when five is the base, the second inversion. 
The propriety of the name inversion, may be seen in the fact that the 
lowest becomes highest, and the highest lowest, &c. 

So many directions and questions are printed over these lessons, that I 
need not enlarge here. I would take great interest in the transposition of 
these cadences. I would ask appropriate questions at each of the lessons 
on page 111. There is probably no danger, fellow teacher, of your 
underrating the importance of scales, arpeggios, and other technics, and 
doubtless you have your own ways of keeping up your pupil's interest in 
them. 

VOCAL EXECUTION. 

In practicing the exercises on pages 114 and 115 to "ah," or other 
vowel sounds for neat execution or articulation of the tones, I should 
carefully avoid on one side the aspirating of each tone, saying, as it were 
ha! ha! ha! ha! &c, and on the other the running of the tones together. 
They should be like a string of pearls; in a sense distinct, an d°yet all 
touching each other. If, all the things for which the first series (page 74) 
is for, are now well and firmly started, I should diminish the time of their 
practice, or in some cases give them up. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to add 
here to the directions from No. 401 to No. 432. At that point I would 
introduce 

THE CHORD OF THE NINTH, 

By saying, play the chord of the seventh of G with seven the highest; now 
add nine, (A.) This is called the chord of the ninth, and is, as it were, made 
by adding to the chord of the seventh, and is always a dominant chord. 
(There may be no objection to saying here that there arc other kinds of 
chords of both seventh and ninth that do not occur in the dominaut, but 
that we do not use them for the present.) 

I would make no explanation with regard to the change of key here, as 
the subject is more fully treated on page 122. The pupil cannot fail to 
derive great advantage from the practice that is directed on page 121, and 
the work will surely interest him, if the previous steps have been well 
taken, for he must now be quite familiar with the keys heretofore gone 
over. More time should now be given to technics, if the pupil begins to 
realize their usefulness, and to like them. 

MODULATION. 

Before playing No. 442 I should say, play the direct common chord of 
the tonic in the key of C, either position. Now play the direct common 
chord of the dominant, choosing a position that will cause as little movement 
of the upper part as possible iu going from one chord to the other. I 
would have these two chords played alternately until the pupil feels fully 
that he is in the key of C, and then would say, while playing the chord of 
(x, (which is now dominant) you may make up your mind to consider it a 
tonic chord, and as such may follow it with the chord of D, which is the 
dominant in the key of G, and so pass from the key of C pleasantly to the 
key of G. 

After playing tonic and dominant until you feel that you are in the key 
of Gr, should you wish to return to the key of C, you may do so by making 



16 



MetliocL of Teaching. 



the chord of Gr (now tonic) a dominant chord. If you wish to make sure 
that it is a dominant chord, I should advise you to put a seventh in it, as 
our chord of the seventh is always a dominant chord. This kind of going 
from one key to another is called modulation. The tone in the key of Gr 
that does not belong to the key of G is, of course, the means by which the 
modulation is made to the key of Gr, and the tone which belongs to the key 
of G, and not to the key of Gr, is the means by which you go pleasantly 
back again, and both are called tones of modulation. 

What is the tone of modulation in going from the hey of G to the hey of 
G? To what chord does it belong in this lesson? What is the tone of 
modulation in going bach to 0? 

In No. 444 it will be seen that a modulation takes place to the key of 
F by means of the tone B flat. It will also be seen that some accidentals 
occur which do not cause modulation or change of key, but are merely 
passing notes. If the teacher chooses to introduce these new things, 
according to the finding out plan, so much the better, but I have not room 
to enlarge in every case. 

SOLFEGGIOS. 

But little need be added to what is said on page 124. I should endeavor 
to have the pupil so control the pharynx, and other organs that give the 
form for quality of tone, that the emotion to be expressed may be evident 
and consistent throughout I should give this solfeggio at least three 
expressions, viz: plaintive, (by some distension of the pharynx,) gay, (by 
some contraction,) and commandiug, (by some distension, with more power 
and intensity or solidity of tone, and decisiou in enunciation.) It will be 
important to observe that an effective vocal performance depends not only 
upon a correct observance of the usual rhythmic, melodic, or dynamic rules 
and right quality of tone, but very much upon distinct and neat enunciation, 
pure pronunciation, and an appearance and manner in every way accordant 
with the emotion to be expressed. 

MINOR SCALES AND CHORDS. 

Before No. 451, I should say, strike the A that is next below middle C. 
Now give me a succession of eight tones, (a scale,) beginning with this A, 
but use such tones as will produce successively the intervals that. I now call 
for. Step, halt step, step, step, half step, step and a half, half step. (A, 
B C, D, E, F, G#, A.) This order of intervals produces what is called the 
minor scale. This particular one is called the scale of A minor. The scale 
we first had is called the major scale. 

MAJOR AND MINOR THIRDS. 

You remember that it was said early in the course,that there are different 
kinds of seconds, thirds, fourths, &c. We have now occasion to notice the 
different kinds of thirds. Play middle G and the E next above it together. 
This produces a third. Now play the same C with E flat. This also 
produces a third, but very different in effect 

Of how many steps is the first third composed? The second? 

A third, consisting of two steps, is called a major third. A third, 
consisting of a step and a half step, is called a minor third. Play middle 
C with the A next below it. 

What hind of a third is here produced? (Play C# with the same A.) 
What hind of a third is this ? 

Now let us make some common chords, taking the tones from this scale 
of A minor; and first make a common chord with A for one. You know 
the common chord consists of a tone, its third, fifth, and eighth. If the 
third is minor, it is called a minor common chord; if the third is major, it 
is called a major common chord. Which is this? It is believed that what 
is priuted in addition on page 128 is suflieient for the beginning of this 
subject. 

HARMONIC AND MELODIC MINOR SCALES. 

I will just state here the facts about the two minor scales at No. 455, 
leaving you to infer how I would introduce the new one. There are several 
kinds of minor scales, of which, however, these two are mostly used. The 
one ascending and descending differently is called the melodic minor scale, 
and the other (the one we have introduced), the harmonic minor scale. I 
should have the pupil examine the intervals of the melodic, and I should 
ask him such questions as" would help him to a clear understanding of both. 



Perhaps it may here be seen that the reason why Gr# is not made a 
signature of the key of A minor, is that Gr is a tone that belongs regularly 
to one of the minor scales, and consequently has as much right to be in the 
signature as Gr#, using the term signature in its broadest sense, viz : such 
an adjustment of the staff as makes it stand for a certain key: 

RELATIVE KEYS. 

It may as well be said here that each signature in music is the sign of 
two keys; a major key and a minor key, and that these are said to be 
related to each other. For example, the key of A minor is said to be the 
relative minor of the key of C major, and vice versa, both having the same 
signature, (natural.) The key of Gr major and the key of E minor, are 
similarly related, both having for signature one sharp, &c. I am led here 
by the remark of a friend to say a few words about • 

TECHNICAL TERMS. 

For naming different, things and operations in sciences, arts, and 
occupations, words are often taken from their ordinary uses, and a specific 
or technical meaning given to them. For example, the little iron or brass 
instrument into which the printer first puts the type as he prepares this 
work for publication, is called a stich, and the operation of setting the type 
is called composition. It would be absurd to say that these words are not 
appropriate, because their usual meanings are so different. When we say 
that one key in music is no more natural than another, we use the word 
natural, according to its common signification; but when we say that the 
signature to the key of C major is natural; or when we speak of the 
musical character that bears this name, we have nothing whatever to do 
with the naturalness of the one nor the other, but refer wholly to the 
technical meaning of the words, just as printers when using the words 
stich and composition have no thought of a piece of wood, nor of the 
literary or musical work which is called composition. Though you cannot 
take a half step when you are walking, nor give a half tone when you are 
singing, you do not thereby hinder, in the least, the use of those words as 
technical terms. Some of the words used as technical terms have meanings 
that are very similar in their different uses, and so seem quite appropriate, 
while in others there seems to be no similarity nor appropriateness, and 
we should perhaps wonder why they were chosen,if it was a matter of much 
importance. 

TONIC DOMINANT AND STJEDOMINANT IN THE MINOR. 

Each minor key has its own scales, chords and harmonies, on the same 
general plan as the major, though producing very different musical effects; 
and at the proper time I should make sure by questioning, and other 
means, that the pupil understands these relations as well in the minor as in 
the major. By the time the pupil has reached page 150, if he has done his 
work well, he will have become well grounded in the things which this 
time going through is intended to teach, and besides, will have improved 
in reading, execution, and taste. By this time your plan, fellow teacher, 
is probably fixed. If it is thorough; if no lesson is left until it is so well 
learned that the pupil can play it easily, surely, and gracefully, under any 
circumstances, if the singing, especially that which relates to qualities of 
tone, is well understood and practiced, if reasons for all things are so 
clear that everything is viewed in rational light, if reviews are well made, 
and the whole work well balanced, then I am sure the pleasant picture drawn 
a few pages back, is, in your case realized. 

After preparing the pupil to practice No. 513, I would try to have him 
undcrstaud, fnr example, that the three first chords in this lesson are, in 
harmony but different forms of the same chord, one being the same tone in 
each, and that we play the chord of whatever is one, consequently not always 
the chord of the written base, that being sometimes three, sometimes five, 
and sometimes seven. I would also have him understand that in order to 
know what chord to play, we must know where one is, and that this is found 
out by the figure or figures; the l>ase being three when the figure 6 is 
under it, five when |, &c. A few questions adapted to the state of the 
pupil, in addition to what is priuted with the lessons, especially after they 
have been played a few times, will render everything about this not very 
intricate matter, suflieiently clear. I will only add about the lessons on 
page 152 that they are designed especially for improvement in flexibility of 



]Vtetliod of Teaching. 



17 



voice, and that the tones should not be made too separate, nor too much run 
together, but may always be sung as fast as they can be neatly articulated. 
No. 534, 

SHOCK OF THE GLOTTIS. 

While it is easy to show how I would do this, it is difficult to describe it, 
so as to be sure of being understood. To repeat a tone while singing only a 
vowel sound, requires a sudden shutting and opening of the glottis, called the 
shock of the glottis. It is as though the breath, being dammed up, -suddenly 
burst out. Care should be taken that the muscles which control the 
breathing act suddenly, and that the breath does not press too hard against 
the glottis. I should pass on .through all these technics trying to infuse in 
to my pupil's mind an appreciation of their usefulness, and a love for their 
practice, which, however, can only be done by his perceiving the benefit 
they are to him, and this result is, of course, only reached by practicing 
them daily and faithfully, until the inflexible or stubborn muscles and chords 
yield to their influence. 

DOUBLE DOTTED NOTES. 

At No. 553 I would say, give me a tone three beats or counts long. 

What hind of note will represent this? 

Now give me a tone a half beat longer than that, or as long as a half 
note, quarter note, and eighth note. This may be represented by a double 
dotted half note. It may be said that the second dot always adds to the 
note as much as half the value of the first dot. 

A double, dotted quarter note will he equal in length to what notes? To 
what counts here? How many parts of the measure will it fill? 

Calculation will, perhaps, help here at the beginning, but a certain 
appreciation or feeling with regard to this rhythmic form should be the 
governing power. 

ETUDE. 

I have no desire to use foreign words when those of our own language 
will answer just as well, but " study" no more gives the full significance 
of 6tude than "rather slow" does of "andante." Etude, though a French 
word, has come into general use, as the name of a certain kind of music 
that often embodies the beauties of the choicest pieces, but always has 
reference to the improvement of the player in some particular direction. 
Etudes are much used for concert and parlor playing. I should say to the 
pupil it is pleasant and useful, while practicing these pieces to make them, in 
your imagination, descriptive of their titles. With the solfeggios beginning 
on page 157, I should leave the pupil more to his own resources in phrasing, 
making use of vowel sounds or syllables, as might be most useful to him. 
The expedient to. save room on pages 158 and 159 will not, I hope, prevent 
the use of these excellent exercises which are taken from a new book by 
Wolfahrt, as are those also on page 164. With regard to the Etudes in 
which relative keys are used, I would ask at various points, 

How many keys is each signature the sign of? What are they called? 
What is the major key here? What the minor? What is relative major 
to minor? What is relative minor to major? 

I should call attention to the beautiful effects of minor music, and try to 
have my pupil like them. No one can play the scales, accenting in each 
kind of time, according to the models on page 168, without being greatly 
improved, both in execution and a knowledge of the keys. Need I say a 
word here, fellow teacher, about the paramount importance of having our 
pupils now know all the scales and their fingering by heart? I certainly 
should, as soon as possible, hear all scale practice without the booh. Although 
these models occupy but little room here, they will, if rightly practiced, 
occupy an important place in the time and interest of the pupil for many 
weeks. This is the case in this book, with many lessons that look simple, 
and occupy but little space. 

CADENZA. 

It happens sometimes, both in playing and singing, that the rhythmic 
equality of a piece of music is broken into by a flight of tones, (generally 
either just before a closing cadence, or between sections,) that serves cither 
as a graceful flourish or a connecting chain, and is subject to no other 
rhythmic law than the taste of the performer, not being usually marked 
into measures. This is called a cadenza^ and is usually written in smaller 



notes. The piece seems to stop, while the cadenza steps in and gives its 
performance, and then resumes its movement. An appropriate cadenza, 
well performed, gives much pleasure to musicians. 

THE GRAND PRACTICE OF THE SCALES. 

At page 176 I should much have liked to print all the scales here to be 
practiced, but it would have taken twenty-four pages, and would, at 
the same time, have deprived the pupil of the great advantage of 
exercising his own powers in transposition, neither of which, fellow teacher, 
could we afford. I well know, that even with all the scales and their 
fingering by heart, our pupils here have a great work to do; one that will 
occupy a part of each day for months — certainly many weeks. Especially 
will this be the case if each model is accented in the four ways given on page 
168, and so-practiced in every key. 

THE IMPERFECT COMMON CHORD. 

Before playing No. 670 I would say, play a fifth, with middle C for the 
lowest tone. 

Of how many steps and half steps is this interval composed? 

From C to G there is a fifth made of three steps and a half step. This 
is called a perfect fifth. Now play G flat for the upper tone. 

How many steps and half steps is this fifth composed of? 

A fifth composed of two steps and two half steps is called an imperfect 
fifth. Now play the common chord of C major. Now play E flat instead 
of E, and so produce the minor common chord of C. Now the same with G 
flat instead of G, and you will have the imperfect common chord of C. I 
would then aid the pupil to investigate and find out that the major common 
chord consists of a major third, perfect fifth, and octave; that the minor 
common chord consists of a minor third, perfect fifth, and octave^ and that 
the imperfect common chord consists of a minor third, imperfect fifth, and 
octave. He would see that the minor common chord is named from the 
third, and the imperfect common chord from the fifth. 

How many hinds of common chords are there? What are they called? 
Of what are they composed? doc. 

It would be an excellent plan to have the pupil form the three kinds of 
common chords successively on each 
tone of the scale, thus : 

SUPERTONIC. MEDIANT. SUBMEDIANT. LEADING NOTE. 

I should say that as one in any key is called the tonic, so two is called 
the supcrtonic, (above the tonic,) three the mediant, (midway between tonic 
and dominant,) six the submediant, (midway between subdominant and 
tonic,) and seven the subtonic, (under the tonic.) This last is, however, 
mostly known by its harmony name of leading note. As chords arc formed 
on tonic, dominant, and subdominant, so they may be formed on these other 
tones. The pupil will soon perceive that e>f these new chords, or rather on 
these new places for chords, only one imperfect common chord is formed, 
the others being minor. Preparing for 671 is only playing _J^ a _„g__ ) 

one, three, five, and seven, on each tone of the scale ffp~ p^g — g^| 
successively, thus: *^ •& & 

While the pupil does this, I would ask what intervals these chords are 
composed of, but first would show that there are two kinds of interval of 
the seventh; a major seventh, consisting of five steps and one half step, 
and a minor seventh, consisting of four steps and two half steps. In this 
first chord he will see there is a major third, a perfect fifth, and a maj&r 
seventh. 

What hind of a seventh is used in the chord of the dominant seventh 
that we Jiave been practicing ? 

I should prepare for the practice of 672 and 673 by saying that music is 
mostly made of tonic, dominant and subdominant harmonies, they being used 
in every conceivable form of position and inversion, and that these new 
chords are limited in their use, hardly ever appearing in more than two or 
three forms. I should have the pupil play these cadences in all the keys, 
and answer such questions about the use of the new chords as will help fix 
them in his mind. I should present some things for investigation in the 
way so often spoken of, that I don't mention here for want of room. For 
example, the fact stated at No. 672, about certain chords of major keys, 
having different names in the relative minor. It may be stated at 674 that 




18 



Method of Teaching. 



there are still other resolutions of the ehord of the seventh than those of 
the tonic and submediant, but they will be easily understood. 

What is tonic in the hey of A minor? What is submediant in the hey 
of C major? What is subdominant in the hey of A minor? What is 
supertonic in C major? 

I would ask similar questions of chords in other relative major and minor 
keys. I would also ask the pupil to tell me all the names of a chord as it 
occurs in different keys, as for example, that the chord of A minor is tonic 
in the key of A minor, submediant in C major, supcrtonie in Gr major, 
subdominant in E minor, &c. 

THE CHORD OF TIIE DIMINISHED SEVENTH. 

• At No. 675, I would say that there is still another kind of interval of 
the seventh, which is formed by taking a minor seventh, and substituting 
for the lower tone, one whieh is a half step higher, and that this new 
interval is ealled, n "g^^ «h,«7th. wmi n .Tth. the diminished seventh. I migrht 
illustrate thus: 
lesson, that it is 




-- &&-- = j*s> — I The directions are so full with this 
-* not necessary to say more here. 



THE CHORD OF THE 



EXTENDED SIXTH 

Before practicing No. 676, I should show the three kinds of intervals of 

the sixth, _q and find out about them in the way already 

and then say that this chord is named from 
of these three sixths. It may easily be 




^ 



$p 



mentioned 
the larger ^ 

seen that this chord is really a chord of the seventh, and would be figured 
J, but with sharps or naturals before the 6 and 4, according to the key in 
which it is used. The naming of chords by the thorough base figuring has 
already been spoken of, and by such naming this would be " The ehord 
of the extended sixth, the sharp fourth and the third." It may be 
interesting here to observe that the major common chord is named from 
the faet that it has a major third, the minor common chord from the 
minor third, the imperfect common chord from the imperfeet fifth, the 
chord of the seventh from the seventh, &e. 

At No. 678, and at all the songs, I should have the pupil analyze the 
harmony, naming the chords with their modulations and passing notes, ex- 
ercising especial eare in regard to the quality of the tone. 

At No. 679, it would only be necessary to show that a tone is also 
syneopated when it commences on the last half of a beat, and continues 
through the first half of the next beat. This rhythmie form should, when 
learned, be felt, rather than calculated. Putting the syncopated part of 
No. 680 into eighth notes at first 



may 



^^^ 



■*- "ST 



f=fc&c. 



£— S^^ 



be useful, thus : 

EMBELLISHMENTS 

It is only necessary to add to what is said at Nos. 682 and 700, that all 
ornaments or embellishments depend for their suecess not only upon being 
well ehosen and neatly executed, but upon a certain good judgment and 
taste in making them faster or slower, according to circumstances. There 
can be no substitute for the living example in acquiring these and many 
other things in music. Pupils cannot guess at good style; they must hear 
it both from us and good public performers, as opportunity may offer. 

PEDAL HARMONY. 

At No. 683, I would play the first four measures of the lesson, keeping 



the base G, and would say that this keeping the same base while the rest 
of the harmony changes, produees what is called Pedal Harmony. Although 
pedal harmony may be very easy to do, considerable attainment in the 
appreciation of music is required before it is really liked. 

At No. 686 the three ehords of the diminished seventh are given, the 
first position of eaeh in full, the others are left to be finished by the pupil, 
which I should have thoroughly done, ehoosing the fingering with great 
care. 

With regard to the three kinds of eludes here made use of, I would say 
that the etudes progressives, have for their principal objeet improvement 
in various things of execution, the etudes e*legantes, though still designed 
to help the pupil in execution, have espeeial reference to taste, while the 
Etudes caraeteristiques endeavor to embody both the former things in some 
of the more unusual and eharaeteristic styles of music. 

PEDALS. 

At No. 703, I should say that the pedal which lifts the dampers from the 
strings should be used rather to prolong tones than to make them louder. 
The term hud pedal is an unfortunate one, as it leads to wrong ideas of its 
use. The foot should be pressed upon the pedal at the word "ped," and 
lifted at the star. The effect of this will be to continue the tone sometime 
after the fingers have left the keys, and thus make the chords fuller, and 
the harmony richer. 

Holding the pedal down for the purpose of making the instrument loud, 
especially if by so doing, chords or tones arc run together that should be 
distinct, is a bad habit, injurious to the pereeptious and taste of the player, 
and disagreeable to persons of musical culture. Such a eourse is sometimes 
resorted to in the hope of concealing defects in execution. 

In the scales in thirds and sixths I should have the pupil play a part of 
the time legato. To do this it is important that one finger or thumb at least 
should remain on the keys until the next third or sixth is struck. Each of 
the remaining pieces and songs should in turu be analyzed *and understood 
as to their construction, and as far as possible the intention of the author 
with regard to their performance should be carried out. The first ot these 
things will be easily done by going over the pieecs slowly, having: the pupil 
name the different things of their harmony. The other is more difficult, 
and consists not only in observing and doing all the external things, sueh 
as giving each note its exaet value, taking the right movement, executing 
with grace aud neatness, using the pedal skillfully, giving the cres. and 
dim., and all other dynamie expressions well, but in having him enter, ns 
it were, into the feeling of the composer, and give forth the true musical 
thought from his (the pupil's) own affection. 

In conclusion let me say to you fellow-teacher that an instruction book is 
properly preparatory, and should be, as it were, a gate which admits the 
pupil to the extensive and beautiful fields wherein are found the choice 
flowers and gems of the greater masters. The book that tries to be both 
the gate and the field must fail in both, as the principle of true progression 
does not admit of reaching the latter within the limits whieh every instruction 
book must have. When the pupil has finished this book rightly, he will 
not be in the field, but the gate will be open, and he will have already 



gathered some of the little flowers at its threshold. 



GEO. F. EOOT. 



DIAGRAM. 

Be© " Tom," in Glossary. 



i 



eoMPAss or seven octave piano. 



MEZZO 60PBANO. 



CONTRALTO. 



1=1= 



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-*H* 



•0-P-1 — I— 



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+~* 



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S5 



d=t 



££ 



>+*- 



*.*. 



T-4-4 



1-+-+- 



n 



=4— J-y-*H«- 
g-g-g-r-r- 



-^1-0 



m 



>-/*- 



■*-* 



I 



1 — i — t — r— 1-^-#- * 

===t=t4^**GA B C DEFG A 



SS5B 



VOCAL COMPASS. 



cde fgabedefgabedefgabe 



3*f'F f VI! 

D £ J = = = = 



ABcd e fg a bede I I* ^ ill i^ ?i^ 



G-LOSSAKY. 



ABBREVIATION, besides its usual meaning as applied to musical terms, 
it is the name of a character that indicates the repetition of the 
previous group or measure. It is made thus : **•, or simply of short 
lines ^ corresponding to the dashes on the notes of the group to be 
repeated. 
ACCELERANDO or ACCEL, gradually faster. 

ACCENT, more force on the tones of certain parts of the measure. Natural 
accent, in double and triple measure, more force on the first part; 
in quadruple measure, on the first and third parts ; in sextuple 
measure, on the first and fourth parts. Accent of Syncopation^ more 
force where the syncopated tone commences. Accent of the legato 
mark, when the legato mark includes but two or three short notes, 
more force on the first, whatever may be the part of the measure on 
which it occurs. Accents are indicated at the pleasure of the composer 
by these signs :> placed over or under notes. Strong and sudden 
accents are indicated by Forzaxdo and its abbreviations. 

ACCIDENTAL, a sharp, flat,or natural, used elsewhere than in the signa- 
ture. 

ADAGTO, a very slow movement. 

AD LIBITUM, or AD LIB., or A PIACERE, at pleasure— usually indi- 
cating a slower movement. 

AFFETTUOSO, or AFFET. with tenderness and pathos. 

AGITATO, in an agitated manner. 

AIR, a term often applied to the principal melody in a composition. 

AL, to the; as al segno, to the sign. 

ALL A, in the style of, as alia capella, in -the church style. 

ALLEGRETTO, somewhat cheerful but not so quick as allegro. 

ALLEGRO, quick, lively. 

AMOROSO, or CON AMORE, affectionately, tenderly. 

ANDANTE, a rather slow movement usually in a gentle and flowing style. 

ANDANTINO, a little faster than andante but in similar style. 

ANIMATO, animated. 

APPOGGIATURA, a small note which not being provided with a regular 
place in the measure as other notes are, indicates a tone that takes the 
time of its performance from one of its neighbors. 

ARPEGGIO, the tones of a chord performed one after another. 

ASSAI, very, as allegro assai, very quick. 

A TEMPO, in time, used after a change in the movement,to indicate the 
original time. 

AUGMENTED FIFTH, a fifth consisting of four steps. 

AUGMENTED SECOND, a second consisting of a step and a half. 

AUGMENTED SIXTH," a sixth consisting of five steps. 

AUTHENTIC CADENCE. Sec cadence. 

BARS, vertical lines across the staff used to divide it into the little por- 
tions which are the signs of measures, and which are, for brevity, 
usually called measures. A bar is sometimes also placed in vocal 
music at the end of each line of the poetry, and a double bar is always 
used at the close of a piece of music, and sometimes at the close of a 
section. 

BARITONE, a male voice which as to its compass is intermediate between 
base and tenor. 

BEN, well; as ben marcato, well marked. 

BIS, a word which written over a phrase indicates that it is to be per- 
formed twice. 
BRACE, a character used to connect the staves upon which the different 

parts of the same tune are represented. 
CADENCE, the last two or three tones or chords of a section or piece of 
music. Half cadence, the ending of a section on the dominant, Plagal 
cadence, a cadence in which the last chord but one is subdominant. 
Authentic cadence^ in which the last chord but one is dominant. 
CADENZA, a phrase or strain of music usually rapid and florid, intro- 1 
duced at certain places in certain kinds of music. The rhythmic ' 



~T e PT.f^ 11 / 6t <>ps for its performance and it is 

P A ^ A^T T V epreSente , d Wlth0ut bars and in small notes. 
Cnoi n ST ' a term d ^ ribin S or ""Keating a singing and graceful style 
nxJ™£' ^ re £ 0r more dlffer ent tones given together. J 

S ? J 1 ?.!?"? 1 ?' '*— ■ai'-UuSl, fifth, seventh and ninth 
The chord of the dominant ninth has a major krd, perfect fifth 
minor seventh and major ninth. All other chords of 'the ninth are 

chord™ M S™™ 10ns or positions of these here nam *d. 

£ ? F ,™E SEVENTH, * tone and its third, fifth and seventh, 
llie chord of the dominant seventh has a major third, perfect fifth 
and minor seventh The chord of the diminished seventh^ a mSor 
third imperfect fifth and diminished seventh. Another chord of the 
seventh C ° nSlderabIy uscd > has a minor third > perfect fifth and minor 

CHROMATIC SCALE, See scale. 

CLEFS, characters used to make the staff indicate the absolute pitch of 
tones. These two || |§ called respectively the treble clef and 
the base clef, arc m£t commonly used. It may be said of clcfe that 
their use has reference to the employment of as few added degrees as 
possible. It should also be said that when the treble clef is used in 
vocal music for the part called tenor, it makes the staff indicate a pitch 
an octave lower than when used in any other way. 

CODA, a second or added ending 

COMMODO, composedly, quietly. 

COMMON CHORD, a tone and its third and fifth. The major common 
chord has a major third and perfect fifth, the minor common chord 
has a minor third and perfect fifth, and the imperfect common chord 
has a minor third and imperfect fifth. 

CON, with, as con/uoco, with fire. 

DA CAPO, from the beginning, literally, from head. 

DAL, from the ; as Dal Segno from the sign. 

DIATONIC, a term describing any succession or combination of tones in 
. any key in which no chromatic tones are found 

DIMINISHED FOURTH, a fourth consisting of one step and two half 
steps. 

DIMINISHED SEVENTH, a seventh consisting of three steps and three 

halt steps. 
DIMINISHED THIRD, a third consisting of two half steps. 
DISSONANT, a name applied to either of the chords of the seventh and 
ninth, and by some to the second inversion of the common chord- also 
to certain intervals. ' 

DOLCE, DOL., or DOLCEMENTE, sweetly. 
DOLENTE, or CON DOLORE, sadly, sorrowfully. 
DOMINANT, the name in harmony sometimes given to five of a diatonic 

scale. 
DOT, sec definition of note. 

DYNAMICS, the name of the department in music that treats of the 
power of sounds. The following arc the names and signs of the prin- 
cipal things included in it: Pianissimo (pp) very soft; piano (fi) 
soft; mezzo, (m) medium; forte (/) loud; fortissimo (jf) very loud • 
crescendo (cres. or -==) increase; diminuendo (dim. or — • ) di- 
minish; -=z=- swell; forzando (f 3 . or >) a sudden, short 
loud tone. 
ESPRESSIVO, or ) . ^ 
CON ESPRESSIONE, J Wlth c *P ressi ™. 
E, and, as dim. e ritard, diminish and retard. 
EIGHTH, the interval made by a tone and the nest but six to it in 

order of a diatonic scale. 
ETUDE, the name of a certain kind of composition. See pao-e 17. 
FALSETTO, the name given to the middle register of mens' voices, 
page 13. 



the 



See 



20 



GLOSSAJRY. 



FIFTH, the interval made by a tone and the next but three to it in the 
order of a diatonic scale. 

FINE, end, finis. 

FLAT, the name of a character (|z) that is used to make a line or space of 
the staff, indicate a pitch a half step lower than it would if there were 
no character but the clef upon it. When the flat is used as a signa- 
ture its power is more extended than when used as an accidental. 

FORZANDO, (fz,) in piano music a strong accent; in singing a strong 
accent on the first part of a tone followed by a sudden diminuendo 
to a less degree of force. 

FOURTH, the interval made by a tone and the next but two to it in the 
order of a diatonic scale. 

FUNDAMENTAL BASE, the place that one of a chord would occupy 
were it in the base. 

FUOCO, see con. 

GrAIO, GAI, gaimento, gaily. 

GALOP, the name given to a lively kind of music usually in double 
measure. 

GIUSTO, justly, in exact time. 

GRAZIOSO, con Grazia, gracefully. 

HALF STEP, a name sometimes given to the smallest interval used in 
music. 

HARMONY, two or more parts performed together. The name given to 
the whole subject of chords and their progressions. 

IL, the; as 11 canto, the melody. 

IMPERFECT FIFTH, a fifth consisting of two steps and two half steps. 

INTERLUDE, a short section usually between repetitions of the main 
composition. 

INTERVAL, the difference of pitch between two tones. The smallest in- 
terval in common use is called a half step, and also for certain purposes 
a minor second. The next larger interval is called a step, and some- 
times a major second. This interval may be so represented that its 
proper name will be a diminished third. The next larger interval is 
called a minor third, or augmented second. The next a major third 
or diminished fourth, &c. The names steps and half steps are used 
to describe the intervals of scales and also of other intervals. 

INVERSION, a term applied to a chord when the base is any other note 
than one. 

KEY the term applied to a family of tones bearing a certain relation to 
each other as to pitch. Seven tones are required to make a complete 
key, although it may be manifested with fewer. The key of major 
consists of the tones A, B, 0, D, E, F, G. The key of G major, A, 
B, 0, D, E, F sharp, G. The key of F major, A, B flat, 0, D, E, F, 
G. The key of A minor, (Harmonic) A, B, 0, D, E, F, Gr sharp, A. 
(In the key of A minor, melodic, both F and F sharp are used.) The 
family or relative names of the tones of a key are, like those of scales, 
the same as the names of numbers. 

KEY NOTE, That tone of a key which makes the most satisfactory end- 
ino- or. resting place. It is always one in the key, whether the tones 
of the key are given in the form of a scale, an exercise or a tunc. 

LARGO, a very slow movement implying a certain seriousness or solemnity. 

LEADING NOTE, The name sometimes given to seven of a diatonic 
scale. 

LEGATO, linked together; connected. Legato mark ^ — ^ a character 
that stands for legato. 

LEGGIERO, LEGGIEREMENTE, lightly. 

L'ISTESSO TEMPO, in the time of the previous movement. 

LENTANDO, slower and slower. 

LENTO, slow. 

L. IL, left hand. _ . 

LOGO, a term used after signs which make the staff indicate a pitch an 
octave higher or lower than usual, to show that its previous signification 
is to be resumed. 

MA, but; as allegro ma non troppo, quick but not too much so. 

MAESTOSO, with majesty. 

MAIN DROITE, M. D., right hand; Main Gauche, M. G., left hand. 
M. S. also stands for left hand. 



MAJOR, a term applied to any key, scale, or common chord in which one 
and three produce a major third ; also applied to certain intervals. 

MAJOR NINTH, a ninth consisting of six steps and two half steps. 

MAJOR SCALE, see scale. 

MAJOR SEVENTH, a seventh consisting of five steps and a half step. 

MAJOR SIXTH, a sixth consisting of four steps and a half step. 

MAJOR SECOND, a second consisting of a step. 

MAJOR THIRD, a third consisting of two steps. 

MARCATO, detached, but not so much so as staccato ; also the name of 
the dot which indicates this style. 

MEASURE, a portion of time. Each measure is divided into smaller 
equal portions called parts of measures. Measures are represented to 
the eye by those parts of the staff which are. found between bars. 
Parts of measures are not indicated in written music but are manifested 
by beats or counts. There are four kinds of measures in common use, 
viz.: double measure, consisting of two parts'; triple measure, consist- 
ing of three parts ; quadruple measure, of four parts ; and sextuple 
measure, of six parts. In the performance of music atone may occupy 
in duration one part of a measure, another tone may occupy two parts, 
another three or more, another tone may occupy a half or quarter of 
one part, another a part and a half, &c. Kind and variety of measure 
are indicated by figures at the commencement of a piece of music, as 
■=4- quadruple measure quarter variety — quarter variety meaning the 

value of a quarter note to each part. 

MEDIANT, the name in harmony sometimes given to three of a diatonie 
scale. 

MEDLEY, several airs (usually well known) performed immediately after 
each other. 

MELODICS, the name of the department in music that treats of the pitch 
of sounds. The following are the names of the principal things that 
belong to it : The major, minor, and chromatic scales, the staff, inter- 
vals, degrees, (lines and spaces of the staff,) clefs, A, B, C, &c, (the. 
names of absolute pitch,) one, two, three, &c, (the names of relative 
pitch,) do, re, mi, &c, (syllables sometimes used in vocal music for 
purposes of enunciation and pronunciation, or to aid in getting the 
right pitch,) base, alto, tenor, treble, sharp, flat, natural, transposition, 
key, trill, turn, and other embellishments, chords, modulations, and 
other things' of harmony. 

MELODY, most commonly used to describe that one of several parts in a 
piece of music which has the most tune, and which is most readily 
caught and remembered ; generally the highest part in a composition 
for several voices. It. also means a succession of single tones differing 
in pitch. 

METRONOME, see page 5. 

MEZZO SOPRANO, a female voice whose compass is between that of 
the soprano and alto. 

MINOR, a term applied to any key, scale or common chord in which one 
and three produce a minor third ; also applied to certain intervals. 

MINOR NINTH, a ninth consisting of five steps and three half steps. 

MINOR SCALE, see scale. 

MINOR SECOND, a second consisting of a half step. 

MINOR SEVENTH, a seventh consisting of four steps and. two half 
steps. 

MINOR SIXTH, a sixth consisting of three steps and two half steps. 

MINOR THIRD, a third consisting of a step and a half step. 

MODERATO, moderately. 

MOLTO, literally much, but usually translated very, as molto allegro, very 
quick. 

MORDENTE, the name of an embellishment, and of the sign ^ which 
indicates it. See page 189. 

MOSSO, movement; as piu mosso, more movement, or quicker. 

MOTO, anxiety; con moto, with anxiety or agitation. 

NATURAL, a character (JJ) properly used only where the signification of 
a line or space of the staff needs to be changed from the effect of a 
"flat, sharp, double flat or double sharp, to the meaning it had before 
either of those characters were placed upon it. 



GM.OSSA.HY. 



21 



NINTH, the interval made by a tone and the next but seven to it in the 
order of a diatonic scale. 

NOCTURNE, a certain kind of musical composition. See page 207. 

NON, not; see definition of Ma. 

NOTATION, a general uamc for all the signs and terms in the represent- 
ation of music, that address the eye. 

NOTE, a character used to represent the length or duration of a tone. A 
note, although usually representing the same length throughout the 
same tune, is made to represent different lengths in different tunes, and 
therefore canuot be said to have an absolute signification in this re- 
spect. The following are the different kinds of uotes in common use, 
with their names : |* quarter note, very commonly representing the 

length of one part of a measure; p* half note, representing (in the 

same tunc) a length equal to that represented by two quarter notes ; 
f 2 -' dotted half note equal to that represented by three quarters ; C3 

whole note, equal to four quarters ; £2. dotted whole note, equal to 
six quarters; &.. double dotted whole note, equal to seveu quarters; 
j* eighth note, indicating a length equal to half that of a quarter note; 

(*' dotted quarter note, equal to three eighths; f 2 ' 9 double dotted 

half note, equal to seven eighths ; fe sixteenth note, equal to half au 

eighth; j*" dotted eighth, equal to three sixteenths ; j**" double dotted 

quarter, equal to seven sixteenths ; ft{ thirty second note, equal to 

half a sixteenth ; ^ dotted sixteenth, equal to three thirty-seconds ; 

^ double dotted eighth, equal to seven thirty-seconds. When eighths, 

sixteenths, or thirty-seconds, dotted or otherwise, are grouped to- 
gether, they assume various forms, of which the fbllowiug are the 
most commou : 

It may be said oi notes that they show which degrees ot the staff 
shall, as it were, be brought into successive or simultaneous action, 
and that thus they indicate the order or succession of tones. 

A group of three notes with the figure three over or under it, thus, 

| | | fT~| S indicates a length equal to that which would be 

? f $ - indicated by two of the same kind of notes under 

other circumstances. 

OBLIGATO, a term often applied to one of the intermediate or lower parts 
in vocal music, when it is designed to have for the time unusual prom- 
inence and importance. It is also applied to a part or instrument in 
the orchestra under similar circumstances, as trumpet obligato, song 
with violoncello obligato, &c. 

OCTAVE, an eighth. 

OTTAVA, or Sva, octave. This term makes that part of the staff over 
which it is placed indicate a pitch an octave higher. It also makes 
that part of the staff xtnder which it is placed indicate a pitch an 
octave lower. 

PASSING NOTES, names given to some of the toucs (generally short) 
that do not form part of the chords with which they are played or 
sung, and also to the notes that represent them. See page 12. 

PAUSE, o a character which indicates that the value of a note or rest 
over which it is placed is to be increased, usually about twice its 
length. When placed over a double bar it indicates the close of a 
piece of music. 

PED., pedal. 

PERFECT FIFTH, a fifth consisting of three steps and a half step. 

PERFECT FOURTH, a fourth consisting of two steps and a half step. 

PHRASE, the smallest division of a piece of music that contains, so to 
speak, a musical idea. 

PIACERE, see ad lib. 

PITCH, one of the three essential properties of a tone; its highness or 
lowness. 

PIU, more. 



POCO, a little; as poco presto, a little quick ; poco a poco, little by little. 
POLONAISE, a term applied to a peculiar kind of music, always written 
in "3" time. See page 196. 

PORTAMENTO, mostly used to describe a certain sliding or carrying of 
the voice from one tone to another. 

POSTLUDE, a short section after the main composition. 

POTPOURRI, a fanciful composition introducing several airs, usually 
well knowu, with variations. 

PRELUDE, a preparatory section to the main composition. 

PREPARATION, making use of a tone of the same pitch as the dissonant 
tone of a dissonant chord, in the chord which immediately precedes it. 

PRESTO, very quick. 

PRESTISSIMO, extremely quick. 

PRIMO, 1 mo., first. 

PROGRESSION, Che process of passing from one tone or chord to an- 
other. 

QUASI, in the style of; as andante quasi allegretto, andante in the style 
of allegretto. 

RALLENTANPO, RAL., ) in, 

RITARDANDO, RITENUTO, RIT., } S raduall y slower - 

RECITATIVE, a kind of vocal music without the usual rhythmic rules, 
where words are rather recited than sung. Accompanied recitation, 
one in which some rhythmical regularity is observed. 

REPEAT, dots, (:) when placed before a bar thus, ( :|) they indicate a 
repetition of the preceding section. When placed after a bar thus, 
(|:) they indicate a repetition of the following section. 

RESOLUTION, The progression of any chord but a common chord, or 
cither of its tones, to a different one. 

REST, a character indicating a certain duration of silence. The following 
are the rests in commou use : * whole rest ; ^ half rest; ^ or \ quarter 
rest : *j eighth rest ; JJ sixteenth rest ; | thirty-second rest. (There 

may be also a dotted and double dotted rest of each kind.) Each rest 
corresponds in its length to the note of like name. 

R. H., right hand. 

RHYTHMICS, the name of the department in music that treats of the 
length of tones. The following are the uames of the principal things 
belonging to it : notes, rests, dots, measures, parts of measures, beats, 
couuting, bars, movement, including adagio, allegro, ritard, &c. 

SCALE, a series of tones in a certain order. Major scale a series of ei«ht 
tones named as to their relative pitch, one, two, three, four, five, six, 
seven and eight. This, when given successively from one to eight, pro- 
duces the following order of intervals, step, step, half step, step, step, step, 
half step. Harmonic minor scale, a series of eight tones named as the 
major, one two three, &c, which when given successively from one to 
eight, produces the following order of intervals, step, half step, step, 
step, half step, step and a half, half step. Melodic minor scale, a se- 
ries of eight tones named as the harmonic, which when given as before, 
produces successively the following; step, half step, step step, step, 
step, half step. In descending, this scale unlike the others, has dif- 
ferent tones, and a corresponding difference in the order of its inter- 
vals. They are as follows: step, step, half step, step, step, half step, 
step. There are other minor scales, but these arc the most common. 
The three scales above mentioned, are called diatonic. Chromatic 
scale, a series of thirteeu tones, which,' when given succesively from 
lowest to highest, or vice versa, produce, only half steps. - This scale is 
named as to relative pitch, one, sharp one, two, sharp two, &c, or de- 
scending eight, seven, flat seven, six, flat six, &c. It may here be said 
that a major and a minor scale or key having the same signature, are 
called relative to each other : as for example, the scale or key of C 
major is said to be the relative major to the scale or key of A minor 
and vice versa. 

SCORE, all the parts of a vocal or instrumental composition. 

SECOND, the interval made by a tone and the next one to it in the order 
of a diatonic scale. 

SECTION, one of the larger divisions of a piece of music. 

SEGNO, SEG., «: sign. 



22 



QLOSSAJRY. 



SEG-UE, SEGrUITO, now follows, as segue il coro, the. chorus now fol- 
lows. It is also used to show that a subsequcnt.passage is to be per- 
formed like that which precedes it. 

SEMPRE, SEM., all the way, as scrnpre legato, all the way legato. 

SEMPLICE, (con,) with simplicity. 

SENZA, without, as scnza replica, without repetition. 

SEQUENCE, a succession of similar chords or intervals in a uniform man- 
ner. 

SEVENTH, the interval made by a tone and the next one to it but five in 
the order of a diatonic scale. 

SFORZANDO, sf. sfz. See forzando. 

SHAKE, see trill. 

SHARP, the name of a character (#) that is used to make a line or space 
of the staff indicate a pitch a half step higher than it would if there 
were no character but the clef upon it. 

SHARP FOURTH, a fourth consisting of three steps. 

SIGNATURE, one, two, three or more sharps or flats (and sometimes 
naturals) placed upon the staff at the commencement of a piece or sec- 
tion of music, to make the staff indicate the right pitch for the key in 
which the piece is to be performed. For example, the key of D ma- 
jor, consists of the tones A, B, C sharp, D, E, F sharp and Gr. The 
staff with only the clef upon it, indicates the piteh of the tones A, B, 
C, D, E, F, and Gr, which make the key of C. By placing sharps 
upon those degrees of the staff that usually stand for the pitches of 
F, and C, their signification is ehanged, and they are made to stand for 
the pitches F sharp and C sharp, and the sharps so placed form the 
signature or sign of the key. 

SIMILE, similarly, in like manner. 

SIXTH, the interval made by a tone and the next but four to it in the or- 
der of a diatonie scale. 

SMORZANDO, SMORZATO, SMORZ, dying away. 

SOLFEGGIO, melodious kind of exercise for the voice, see page 124. 

SONATA, a composition consisting of several movements, generally for a 
single instrument with or without accompaniment. 

SOSTENUTO, SOST., sustained. 

SOTTO YOCE, softly, subdued, in an undertone. 

SPACES, certain degrees of the staff. 

STACCATO, the style of performing music in which each tone is made 
very short, and as mueh detached from the others as the time will ad- 
mit, also the name of the character ( f ) that indicates this style. Used 
to avoid multiplying the rests and the more unusual notes. 

STAFF, the character used to represent the pitch of tones. The staff 
consists of lines and spaees, each of which, is called a degree. There 
are, or may be, as many degrees in the staff as there arc pitehes of 
tones in any key. Only eleven of these degrees (five lines and six 
spaces,) are usually printed in full; when others are wanted, they are 
temporarily added by means of short lines, 



Second added line above - 
Space above Firit added line above - 



Second added space above 
FirBt add c dji>aM above E]( .„ nth deg _ 



^TKfoTT c ir FourthM3es - 



-fTCh-agT Siith-deg. 



-g ^nti. dcg. E 'g hth - j 



NTn£br5ci~ 



Space below Fint degree ^Ftat added line below _— Fi»t addcd-J^cc below 

Second added space below 

STEP, an interval as large as two half steps — steps and half steps are used 
in analyzing scales and larger intervals. 

STRAIN, a line or section of musie. 

STRINGENDO, accelerating the movement. 

SUBDOMINANT, the name in harmony, sometimes given to four of a 
diatonic scale. 

SUBMEDIANT, the name in harmony some times given to six of a dia- 
tonie scale. 

SUBTONIC, the name in harmony sometimes given to seven of a dia- 
tonie seale. 

SUSPENSION, an aceented tone not belonging to the chord with which 
it is given. See page 100. 

SUPERTONIC, the name in harmony sometimes given to two of a dia- 
tonic scale. 

SYMPHONY, the highest kind of instrumental composition. 



SYNCOPATION, when a tone commences on an unaccented part of a mea- 
sure and continues through an aecented part, it is called a syncopation. 
When a tone commences on the last half of one part of a measure 
and continues through the first half of the next part, a similar effect 
is produced, and the same name is given to it. A well given synco- 
pated tone is always aeeented. 

TASTO SOLO, T. S., a term used to indicate that the other parts are to 
cease, and the base to be played. 

TEMPO, TEM., time. Tempo prinxo is equivalent to a tempo, which see. 

TENTH, an interval of an octave and a third. 

TENUTO, TEN., be tenaeious of; hold the tone to its fullest extent. 

TERZA, the interval of a third . 

THEME, The melody in certain kinds of music, on which as a text the 
other seetions are composed. 

THIRD, the interval made by a tone and the next but one to it in the 
order of the diatonic scale. 

THOROUGH BASE, playing through the base by means of figures. 

TIE, The name of a character like a legato mark, but used only over or 
under two notes on the same degree of the staff to make them stand 
for one tone. 

TIME, A word which in music not only has its usual signification, but also 
means movement, and sometimes measure, as double time, &c. 

TONE, a musical sound, the essential properties of which are length, 
piteh and power. In written mnsic the property of length is repre- 
sented by a note, the property of pitch by a line or space of the staff, 
and the property of power by some dynamic term or sign either ex- 
pressed or understood, and the combination of all stands for a tone. 
It is hardly necessary to add that if either of these properties be taken 
away from a tone it ceases to exist, aud that no representation of a 
tone is perfect that does not provide for the representation of these 
three properties. See definition of note, staff, and dynamics. Tones 
are named as to their length by the names of notes. They are named 
as to their absolute pitch by the names of the first seven letters of the 
alphabet, with, in some cases, the addition of the words flat, sharp, 
natural, double flat or double sharp, large, small, once marked, twice 
marked, &c. They are named as to their relative pitch by some of 
the names of numbers. They are named as to their power by the 
terms and names in the department of Dynamics. The diagram on 
page 18 shows the representations of tones as to their pitch and gives 
their exact names. It will be seen that the tone so well known as 
middle C is also named once marked small C. The tone a half step 
above that, is named either once marked small C sharp, or once marked 
small D flat, and so of other intermediate tones. This representation 
might easily extend so as to include all the tones that the ear can ap- 
preciate. 

TONIC, the name in harmony sometimes given to one, or the key note of a 
diatonic scale. 

TRANSPOSITION, playing or singing a scale, exercise, or tune, in a 
higher or lower key. 

TREMOLO, TREMANDO, TREM., tremulously. See page 219. 

TRILL, The rapid alternation of two contiguous tones. See page 195. 

TRIO, a piece of music, in three parts ; also the second movement in cer- 
tain kinds of music which leads to the performance again of the first 
section or movement. 

TRIPLET, see definition of note. 

TROPPO, too mueh. 

TUTTA, all, con tutta la forza, with all the force. 

TUTTI, all the voiecs or instruments, or both. 

UN., a or an ; zsunpoco, a little. 

UNA CORDA, one string; applicable to pianos whose softer tones may be 
produeed by making the hammers strike one string. Equivalent to 
piano or p. 

UNISON, produced by two or more tones of the same piteh. 

VELOCE, or con velocita, with velocity. 

VIVACE, VIVO, with vivacity. 

VOCE, voice ; voce di petto, chest voice; voce di testa, head voiee. 

VOLTI SUBITO, V. S., turn the leaf quickly. 



THE MUSICAL OUEEICULUM. 



To the Pupil. — I write over the lessons the substance of what your teacher will be likely to tell you in the course of his instructions. 
This is done that you may not forget important directions, while you are practicing by yourself; for bad habits are formed or kept up by 
forgetting or neglecting such directions, and good ones are acquired only by constantly observing them. You will therefore do well to 
read over these hints and directions, and to look at the cuts that illustrate good positions, every time you sit down to practice, and 
continue to do this until good habits in all things are formed. Gr. F. R. 

Wo. 1. Position. Letters as names of Tones. (See page 3.) 

Take your place before the center of the key-board. Have the seat so high that the point of the elbows shall fall a trifle below the surface of the 
keys, and let the elbows be as far forward as the front of the shoulder. Strike all the G's upon the piano, also all the D's and all the G's. 

STo. 2. Intervals, on the Piano and on the Hands. 

Play seconds, thirds, fourths and fifths, all over the key-board, with each hand — reckoning them both upward and downward — using white keys only. 



STo. 3. Quarter Notes. Staff. Treble Clef. Places on the Staff representing middle C, and the I3> 
next above it. Intervals on the Staff. Marks of Fingering. 

Eight Hand. — Keep the hand still. Do not leave one key down while striking the next. Name the interval that oecurs here. 



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No. 4. Base Clef. The C next below middle C, and the G- next below that. 

Left Hand. — Do not tip the hand sidewise. Observe the other directions. Strike with the thumb and finger only. Hold the hand perfectly 
square and still, as if a glass of water stood on it that you dare not spill. 

X_X_X_x_x^x„x„x„x„ »; _ x _ x x X „ x 



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>. 5. Brace. Measures. Doxible Time. Figures. Bars. Counting. Double Bars. 

Both Hands. — Hands and body in good position and still. Keep the eyes upon the notes. Play steadily and slow. Observe the intervals to be 
played, on the piano and on the staff, and let those of your hand correspond. 



JLg — x — . — * — . — * — i 


S )4 J. Jhr^r^Jr^r^^U «Hj J'j J'i J'i J'i J'i Jj^jr-" 

X, X X 

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fah% —j r r r 


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J 3: &-1 ^LJ ^_1 ^l_J ^_l ^_! &-1 ^l_I m U tfM ^Li ^U ^U U 



No. G. The same lesson an octave higher. Middle C in the Base. 

Always keep the same place exactly before the eenter of the key-board, unless you are playing in a four-hand piece. Observe that the left hand now 
commences with middle C, and the right hand with the G next above it, or an oetave higher. 



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24 



First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



Mo. 7. Half Note. Accent. Moderate Metronome Marks. 

Find your place by the middle C. Do not count faster at the half noted. Do not sing the eounts, but speak them promptly and steadily. Strike on 
the ends of the fingers, but on the sides of the thumbs. Take pattern from the little sketeh at the eommeneement of this Lesson. Name the intervals 
that oeeur here. AVhat indicates the pitch of these tones ? What their length ? 
Moderato. (^=104. 




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KT®. §. E in the Treble. Mezzo and Forte, and their Abbreviations. Tie. 

Keep the thumb over the keys while the fingers arc playing. Observe the expression — Medium and Loud. When there is no mark indicating 
movement, Morfrrato is to be understood. What interval is indicated at the third and fourth notes of the treble here? What is a third below the 
seeond finger of the right hand ? 



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Mo. 9. Triple Measure. Dotted Half Notes. Expression invented by the Pupil. 

When there are no marks of expression, sueh as Mezzo or Forte, exercise your own taste — make the lesson sound as well as possible. Move fingers 
on^y. It will not take long to form good habits, if you do not forget and let the bad ones eome in and rule. 

2 




No. lO. F in Treble. B in Base- 
Play very slow until the lesson is perfeet; then give it the time indicated by Moderato. Count steadily through the dotted half-notes. Name the 
sounds indicated by the degrees of the staff while pointing at the lines and spaees, before playing the lesson: as C, D, E, &-e. Do this frequently for a 
few days, or until you beeome familliar with them. 



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M(j. 11. A in Base. Quarter Rest. 

Play the lesson so slow that you ean make it perfeet in regard to striking the right keys the first time you try it. This will be done by reckoning 
the intervals in the lesson and at the fingers as you play — a proeess, slow at first, after a while accomplished at a glanee. 



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Position of hands unchanged during each Lesson. Movement by fingers only. 



25 



No. 1«. G in Treble. Quadruple Measure. Whole Note. 

^Do not tip thejiand sidewise— keep it leveL Observe expression. Avoid all grimaces and distortions. Do not look on your 




hands. Keep the fingers on the right keys by observing the intervals as they occur. Make the fingers strike like little hammers. 
= Do not let the finger nails touch the keys. Observe carefully and imitate closely the position of the hand in this sketch, especially 
ot the linger that is raised to strike; and let each finger assume the same position as it is raised. The thumb is raised without curv' 




STo. 13. F in Base. 

Keep the thumb of the right hand over C. All eare that you bestow at this stage of your practice, will strengthen the foundation on whieh to build 
a beautiful superstructure. When the marks of expression are not given, try experiments until the different degrees of strength are so used as to make 
the lesson sound well. 



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No. 14. Piano, and its Abbreviation. Half Rest. 

Find your place by middle C. Do not strike the little finger on its side. Look quiet and pleasant. After you have learned this lesson so that it 
will go through in time and tune, play it onee applying the same degree of strength to every part of it; then play it according to the dynamie marks 
and observe the difference. 



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5To. 15. (Learn No. 16 next after this. It will be found on page 45.) 

Do not roll the hand around. Move fingers only. Name the tones and intervals before playing the lesson. Review carefnlly every day. Remem- 
ber that a lessou to benefit you must be learned. A lesson is not learned because you can play it once through without making a mistake. It only 
beeomes learned and settled by reviewing it day after day for several days. 



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intervals you have had. Do not eonsider it learned until you can play it without looking at your hands ) and think, while you play, what interval you 
are making, and also the names of the tones you produce. t 

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First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



Mo. 18. Change of Position of Hight Hand. 

Observe that the hands are now changing their position, so as to bring other tones into the field. Notiec the different effects of the musie in the 
different positions. Try to keep in mind the names of the tones, also the intervals on the hands as well as the notes. Do not look down. 





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No. 19. Change of Position. Beginning on last part of Measure. 

Reckon intervals earefnlly until you ean tell them at a glanee. Go slow and sure. Do not hollow in the fingers at the ends, but let them eurve 
outward as shown in the plate of eorrect position. Bring out all the meaning there may be in these lessons. This effort will improve your taste. 



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No. 20. Change of Position. Section. Tfcepeat. 

Play eaeh part alone first, so that when you put them together they may be as nearly as possible perfeet the first time through. Do not sin*» or 
drawl the eounts, any more than you would move your hand sluggishly if you were beating time. 



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No. 21. Change of Position of Kight Hand. Singing. 

Let the principal effort in singing be directed to keeping in exaet tune with the piano, and in giving out the voiee freely and naturally. Although 
we do not eommenee the study of singing yet, you may make this little song sound as well as you ean. 



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Position of hands unchanged during each Lesson. Movement by fingers only. 



27 



Mo. 22. TIHIE FIRST DUET. — Secondo. 

In playing the second of four-hand pieces, sit opposite the center of the lower half of the piano. Remember to have the 
intervals on the hand correspond to those on the staff. Do not let the wrist fall below the knuckles. Do not let the finger nails 
-^^i^E strike the keys. 



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THE FIRST DUET. — Primo. 
T¥o. 23. Change of Position. Treble Clef for Left Hand. 

To play this lesson sit opposite the center of the upper half of the piano. This and No. 22 may be played together. Observe that the right hand 
eommences two octaves above middle C, and the left hand one octave above it. 



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Bfo. 24. F Sharp. Key Note Gr. Signature. 

Find your place by middle C. Play F sharp instead of F. Each two degrees of the staff that are next to each other represent a second — whatever 
tones they stand for. So F sharp is a second from E, or from G : and on the piano it is not only a second fromE to F, but from E to F sharp; not only 
a second from F to G, but from F sharp to G; and a third from F sharp to A, and so on. 



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First time through the Keys. Fingers alone, and one at a* time. 



No. S3. Sextuple Measure. Dotted Whole Note. 

The place on the staff which sometimes represents F, now represents F sharp. F would not sound well. Name intervals, and think of . them while 
you play. Be determined, from the beginning, to understand music — to know the structure and meaning of that which you play and sing, as well as 
you do the story you read. _ 




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No. %7* Andantino. 

Make the melody sing as much as you ean, but do not sing yourself. Remember that your musical perception, or ear, can be improved as well as 
your fingers — as can also your taste and appreciation. 

ANDANTINO. ("=92 



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Wo. a8. (You will find No. 29 on page 46.) 

While you arc singing, observe all the things necessary to playing well. Do not hold the hand stiff. Let the strength come from the fingers alone. 
Right lessons and pieces well learned, although simple, will give pleasure to yourself and friends at every step, while at the same time they are exercising 
and developing all your musical powers. 



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29 



THE SECOISriD DTTET.— Secondo. 
No. 30. I3ase Olefin upper Staff- 
Agree with your eompanion where you will play loud and soft. Play sometimes 1st, and sometimes 2d. If you are so far alono-, 
in your appreciation of musie, that these lessons seem to you more adapted for younger persons, you should remember that we 
= must beeome "as little ehildren " to learn any thing well. There is no sueh thing as beginning with grown up musie. 




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Mo. 31. THE SECOND DUET.— Primo. 

May be played with No. 30. Praetiee eaeh lesson thoroughly, whether played as duet or not. Keep trying to hit the right note without looking, 
and try also to have the intervals in your mind as you play, without the apparent effort of thinking — both will eome after a moderate amount of effort. 

ALLEGRETTO. r=l20. * _jfi_ 



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IV©. 3&. C Sharp. Key Note D. 

Find your plaee by middle C. Hands still — eyes upon notes. F sharp and C sharp, instead of F and C, to make the key note right. You should 
be able to toueh the right keys without looking, as unerringly as you ean your mouth, eyes or forehead. Try to feel that you make the fingers move 
from the knuekles, without moving the other joints. 



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First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



No. 3». "OVEB THE n^E^IDO^KTS-" 

When you ean play and sing these lessons readily, notiee whether you take your breath between the syllables. Do not sing the pieee until you ean 
play it quite easily. Pay eonstant attention to the eorreet position of the hands, so that the minute you plaee them over the key-board they will take the 
right position. Now is the time to do this, as you will soon have other things to attend to, and the hand will be left to take eare of itself. 







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No. 34. Marcato. Crescendo, and its Abbreviation. 

Take the finger or thumb off the " mareato " notes neatly by lifting the hand, as in the eut on next page. Remember that learning the notes here 
is but beginning this lesson — ease, faeility and good expression must follow to eomplete it. 

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Mo. 35. THE TIKCIIRID IDTTET- — Secondo. 

You observe that the thumbs strike the first notes. Let the thought of the intervals in the musie, and on the fingers, guide you. Think also, if 
possible, of the names of the tones. 



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31 



TJE3IE TKIIELID DUET.™ Primo. 

No. SOj^JNo. 3? is on page 46.) 

Find your placejjy middle C. Agree with your companion about expression. If you learn the lesson in the book imperfectly, or 
rmore especially if you seek others, out of it, that arc not suited to you, you will dread to play or sing when asked, and give little or 
;no pleasure when you do. You may persist in this course, thinking you will learn after a while, but that is a delusion, and like the 

J auk (/-lantern, will lead you into quagmires and impenetrable thickets of difficulty. Only those pieces that you can perform to any body, and at any 

time, arc right ones for you. 




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No. 38. G- Sharp. Key Note A. 

You will now find F sharp, C sharp, and Gr sharp necessary to make the lesson sound well, and to make the key-note A. Name the tones and intervals 
the first thing, and think of them as you play. Overcome eaeh difficulty thoroughly, that you may be prepared to meet the next. 



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No, 39. Da Capo. Fine. 

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of where you are playing, that you may not be taken by surprise. The cut above is to show how the hand is raised after striking the mareato notes. 





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First time through the Keys. Fingers alone, and one at a time. 



No. 40. Allegretto. 

If you make mistakes, it will probably be because you arc playing too fast. A good plan, under such circumstances, is to commence again, and go 
just half as fast. A piece that has some places in it that you can not get right, or that by great labor and care and the most favorable circumstances, 
you can just get through in time and tune, without expression, is not suited to you, and will give no pleasure to tasteful people. Neatness, case and 
finish, in a performance, are much more agreeable than the appearance of difficulty; so do not be anxious to play or sing music too difficult for you, but 
rat.bftr strive to give with finish and elegance that which is adapted to your present condition and attainments. 



J*. AIXEGRETTO. 




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Wo. 41. "I LOVE THE G-XjE^^I^S OF STJ^-ZLIG-ZKT." 

Attend to names of tones, intervals, right positions, and good expression. What, taken with Cr sharp, will make a second ? A third ? A fourlh ? 
What, taken with C sharp, will make those intervals ? What, taken with F sharp, will make them ? Beckon both upwards and downwards. 



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Do not throw the hand up at the rests, but let it stay quietly in its place until it is wanted again. Count promptly until the piece is learned. 



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33 



Mo. 43. 




THE FOURTH IDTXET- — Primo. 
Endeavor to keep the time perfectly together. Be eareful to take off the finger neatly at notes marked mareato. Are you able 
more quiekly to tell the intervals as they oeeur in the musie, and more readily to adopt the corresponding intervals on the hands ? 
Are your hands beginning to assume, as it were of themselves, the right positions when you plaee them on the keys ? 



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Mo. 45. D Sharp. Key Note PL 

Are the fingers striking like little hammers, and without tipping or moving the hand ? 



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When the first finger readies over the thumb to strike the blaek key, the thumb should roll a little, so that the hand shall not move at the wrist. 
You observe that the first and seeond fingers here are obliged to extend themselves so as to make a third. 



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First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



No. 48. Legato Mark- ' 

Slow at first — allegretto at last. It will not be perfect until you can play it at least three consecutive times without a mistake. Do not let the fingers 
bend inward when striking the black keys. Remember that the legato mark indicates closely connected tones. 





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STo. 49. First Time and Second Time. 

The words will guide you in regard to the first and second endings. 



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FIRST TIME. 



SECOND TIME. 



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Ban - isli your sad-ness, Let nauglit but glad-ness Fill ev - ery heart in this pleas -ant hour. 
do not bor - row One thought of sor - row. Yield to the spell of the (omit ) 



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IVo. 51. THE FIFTH 1DXJET. — Secondo. 

Are you forming the habit of thinking what tones and intervals you make as you play ? Remember that your object is intelligence in regard 
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35 



No. 53. _ THE FIFTH DUET. — Peimo. 

When two notes have a legato mark over or under them, the indication is that the first receives some aeeent — that the two tones 
rare eonDeeted as mueh as possible, and that the last is left lightly and neatly — somewhat as if it had the sign of the mareato attached 
; to it. You perceive that this breaks in upon the natural aeeent of the measure, but that is often set aside for higher expressions. The 
left hand moves on steadily. 




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No. 53. A Sharp. Key Note B. 

Give the expression according to your own taste. Try both loud and soft, for an ending, and see whieh you like best. Although the fingers are not 
so mueh curved when striking the blaek keys as when striking the white ones, still they should not be straight. 



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The blaek keys accommodate the inequalities of the fingers. Put the first finger over the thumb with as little motion of the hand as possible 



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No. 50. E Sharp. Key Note F Sharp. 

Observe that E sharp is the same as F. Remember that the eut above is only to show how the hand looks after leaving a mareato note. 

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No. 58. B Sharp. Key Note C Sharp. 

Observe that B sharp is the same as C. Every tone is a half-step higher than if the key-note were C. 



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36 



First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



No. 60. Key Note C. The Interval of the Sixth., 

We commence again with our first key. Can you play any of the preceding lessons without a mistake ? It will be unwise to go on until you can. 



_ ALLEGRETTO. 

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5To. 61. You observe that in these lessons there is a new interval, (the sixth,) and that the fingers must be a little extended to reach it. 



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Wo. 63. Play so slow that you can make the lesson perfect in regard to striking the right keys the first time you try it. 



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JfO. 63. This is an important movement. Become perfectly familiar with it. When there are no marks of expression, supply them yourself, after 
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]Vo. 64. It will be necessary to become so familiar with this sixth that you will not only recognise it at a glance, but that the hands will play it 
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37 



Wo. 05. B Flat- Key Note F. 

Develop what expression there may be in every unmarked lesson. Be careful when striking the little finger not to let it lie straight, but strike with 
the end, and do not let the hand turn on one side. 



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Mo. C6. Eighth. Notes. 

Do not prolong the eounts in a singing tone. Speak them promptly. Try to play the sixths in the base neatly and accurately, without looking down. 



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Sing, brothers, sing; Sing, brothers, sing; Time's on the wing, Time's on the wing, Bear-ing a - way Hopes that to - day Close round the young spir -it cling^~" 

Yes, brothers, sing; Yes, brothers, sing; Time's on the wing, Time's on the wing, Still af - ter night Com - eth the light— And af - ter win - ter the spring: 



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But do not sigh That thus they fly, 0th - ers will come When they are gone. Sing, broth-ers, sing; Sing, broth-ers sing; While time is fly - ing a - longT" 

So do not grieve, Sor - rows will leave When comes the day With cheering ray. Yes, broth-ers, sing ; Yes, broth-ers sing ; Tho' time- is fly - ing a - way. 



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IV©. CT. If you have formed good habits; your left hand will be very quiet in this lesson. You ean apply the words whieh are set to the previous 
melody to this, after you have learned it. Notiee that the eighth notes do not all look alike. It is convenient often to join them together in a group by 
the mark which makes them eighths. Do not begin the ereseendos too loud, nor the diminuendos too soft. 



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38 



First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



KT©. GO. Remember to review the number of lessons that your teacher gives you, leaving off one as you learn one. 




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No. 74*. THE SIXTH DUET.— Secondo. 

Aeeent and eonnecfc aecording to the legato marks. See that no bad habit, with regard to position, is quietly fastening itself upon you. 



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Mo. 71. THE SIXTH 3DTJET. — Primo. 

Make yourself familiar with distinguishing the added lines and spaces quiekly. Keep the fingers properly eurved. 



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M<3. 72. E Flat. Key Note B Flat. Syncopation. 

Observe the aecent required by the syneopation. You perceive that aeceuts sometimes fall on parts of the measure usually unaeeented. 



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'Vo. 73. Observe that the same fingers are used for different groups of notes. Give a neat aeeent at the beginning of the legato marks. 



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No, 74, TIKE SEVENTH DTJET.- Skcondo. 

Think, as you play, of names of tones, intervals, dynamie degrees, expression, position of hands, and movements of fingers. 



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THE SEVENTH [DUET.— Primo. 



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First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



cc s^^rxFTxrsr c^ezr, the tiide." ~ 

No. 76. Praetice as earefully and diligently as if your teaeher's eyes were upon you. He ean only guide and aid you — he ean not learn for you. 




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1. Swift-ly o'er the tide, Fai - ry lit - tie May, My dar-ling May, 

2. On our light bark flies, Fai - ry lit - tie May, My dar-ling May, 



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In our boat we glide, Fai - ry lit - tie 
With the breeze she vies, Fai - ry lit - tie 



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May, My dar - ling May. 
M;iy. My dar - ling May. 



Spark - ling in our path - way See the mer - ry, mer - ry rip - pies play, As we 
Spark - ling as we pass them, Still the mer - ry, mer - ry rip - pies play, And we 



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sing our joy 



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Overcome the new difficulties thoroughly. Do not forget to keep the key and the intervals in mind. 



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No. 81. You will never become a good player without being a correct timist. Counting aloud will help you in this, 



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SITTIISTG- IROTTHXTID THE IKIE^IRTlH^STOIISriE. 



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First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



Wo. 83. THE EIGHTH E-TTET. — Secondo. 

When you have learned to play your lesson through without mistakes, you arc thon just ready to practice it with most profit. 



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No. 84. THE EIGHTH ETTET. — Pbimo. 

Remember you are to learn to make a correct player. That is your part of the work. The fast playing will come of itself. 



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Ko. 85. Varieties of Meas^are. Dotted Quarter Note. Dal Se^no. 

It is hoped that you will find the pieees here attractive enough to yourself and your friends, to prevent you from urging your teacher out of the 
regular course to get other music. You can count six in this measure, or two. 



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Position of hands unchanged during each Lesson- Movement by fingers only. 43 



No. 87. D Flat. Key Note A Flat. 

Do your hands take the right position without thought on your part ? Tf so. that -ood habit is formed. 



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IVO. 88. Keep both hands well over the black keys. Remember that the expression is just as important as the time and tune. 

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"MERRILY OVER TKE "WATER " 
Wo. 8®. Eighth Rests. 

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First time through the Keys. Exercises, Pieces and Preparatory Songs. 



STo. 90. THE 1STI1STTKC DXJET-— Segondo. 

Put the right arm over the left of the one who plays the primo. 

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No. 91. THE ISTHSTTKC IDXJET. — Primo. 

Do not count faster at the rests. Leave the notes neatly. 

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After playing this, play No. 58, and notiee in what respeets they differ, and in what respects they are alike. 



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Wo. 95. C Flat. Key Note Q Flat. 

After playing this, play No. 56. Do not negleet the five finger exereises, but praefciee them in their order. 



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Mo. 97. F Flat. Ki&y Note C Flat. 

Every tone a half-step lower than when the key-note is C. After playing this, play No. 53. 



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Exercises for Daily Practice.— First Series. 



45 



KTo. ©9. Grive a little aeeent to the first note of eaeh group in the base, and to the first note of eaeh legato mark in the treble ; also let the last note 
of eaeh group and of eaeh legato mark be light. The hand must be somewhat independent to do this, as you pereeive. 



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FIVE-FINGER EXERCISES. 

These exercises, technically ealled " five-finger exereises " are for the fingers what gymnastie and ealisthenie exereiscs are for the rest of the body, 
and should, like them, be practiced every day; as it is only in this way that museular improvement ean be made. Although not learned at once, these 
lessons are printed together, that time may not be lost in searching for them in various parts of the book. Until you have played to No. 16, this work 
will not eommenee — after that add them as you learn them, in the order of their numbers, to the list of things to be clone first in each day's practiee. 
The one without a number, your teacher will show you how to use. It will be-awkward to the untrained muscles, but should be persisted in until it is 
thoroughly mastered, and the fingers beeome readily subservient to the will. As you aequire legato, marcato, ereseendo, diminuendo, and other styles, 
apply them, a part of the time, in the practiee of these exereises. 



Each two measures should be practiced until the fingers begin to grow tired, and no longer. 




M""'? 1G. FivG l^ixi°*Gr ElXIGX'CiSG in O. ^ y° u practice two hours a day, the first half hour should be given to these exercises. 



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Exercises for Daily Practice.— First Series. 



]VO. 30. Five Finger ExercisG in Gr. ^ e as careful as possible about position of hands and movement of fingers. 



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Wo. ST. Five Finger Exercise in JD. Introduce here sueh expression as you are acquiring in the other lessons. 



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K"© 4:4 Five Finger Exercise in A Notiee the intervals that oeeur in the musie, and see that the hands correspond. 



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Wo 55 Five Fintrer Exercise in 13. Flay slow enough to be exaet in time and graeeful in execution. 

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WO. 5^. Five Finger Exercise in F Sharp. Strike the blaek keys evenly and surely. Fingers not so mueh eurved. 



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WO. 5f*. Five Finger Exercise in C Sharp. Be eareful, in this exercise, not to strike (wo keys at a time. 



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47 



STO. 68. Five Fin ger Exercise. Key Of F. Learn every piece in the book, in the order of its number. 

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!NTO. 80. Five Finger Exercise. Key Of E Flat- Strike up as well as down. Let the fingers leave the keys with a prompt movement. 

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TSO, ©2. Five Finger Exercise- Key Of A Flat- If y°u mak e mistakes, you arc playing too fast. Begin again, and play half as fast. 




1S"©» 94L Five Fin°*er Exercise- Key Of D Flat. Remember the cuts illustrating good positions, and play with even, graceful motion. 



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MO. DO. Five Finger Exercise- Key Of Gr Flat, ^ee that the wrist does not rise and fall at each stroke of the fingers. 



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MO. 98. Five Finger Exercise. Key Of C Flat. No one has ev er bcoome a good pianist without practicing five finger exercises. 




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Lessons for Staccato Practice. 



No. 100. Staccato. TIKCIE TE3STTKC DUET.- Secondo. > . . w 

Before playing this lesson, exercise caeh finger in succession, on any key of the pianoforte, producing staceato tones. Notice the position, before 
striking, as illustrated by Fig. 1, and after striking, as illustrated by Fig. 2. 

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Wo. 101. THE TZEISTTKC IDXJET.— Primo. 

The half notes are not staceato, but are held their full time. The others have a short, sharp, sudden stroke, making the tone like a point. Observe 
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Mo. 103. Let the hand remain as quiet while producing the staceato tones, as is consistent with a quick, springy movement of the fingers. 

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Lessons for Staccato Practice. 



49 



!LVo. 103. Be careful to draw off the finger in the right manner to produce the staccato — also make the short tone light. Observe that where the 
last note of a legato mark is two or more counts long, it is not made staccato. 




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Wo. 104. Give this expression according to your own taste. Make the legato tones sing. Do not let the staccato tones be coarse or too abrupt.. 
It is hoped that the intervals as far as the sixth are now familiar, and that they can be named and played without the least hesitation. 



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Mo. 105. While the left hand plays steadily, making only the usual variations of soft and loud, the right hand should give the accent which com- 
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Lessons for the Practice of Transposition. 



No. 106. Cadence. Transposition. 

The transposition of this cadence is here printed in fnll, that you may see as well as hear its beautiful order. In the study of harmony, if you speak 
of an interval — a fifth for example — it is always understood to mean a fifth upward, unless otherwise expressly stated; so that in speaking of the fifth 
from C 3 G would be meant, although you may find it & fourth below. Therefore the transposition through the keys, in this way, is said to be a transpo- 
sition by fifths. Notice that the cadence in F# and G(? are the same to the ear, differing only in representation. Notice also that, from that point, the 
transposition, although still by fifths, and the same to the ear, is indicated by one less character in the signature each time, instead of one more — taking 
away a flat producing the same effect as adding a sharp. 

Play this cadence in the different keys as written, and also in the following order, viz : C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db? Gb, ^#, B, E, A, T), G, and C. This 
you see is going back again, and is a transposition by fourths. 



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No. lOT. Play this cadence in all the keys, transposing first by fifths, 
then again by fourths. The intervals in the right hand being seconds, there 
will be but little difficulty when you get started on the right key-note, though 
you must remember that there is no F when the key-note is G ; and neither 
F nor C when the key-note is D ; but F sharp, C sharp, and so on. In the 
base, you will notice that you first go down a fifth from the key-note, then 
up a second, then up a fourth. Your knowledge of intervals will be ser- 
viceable to you here. 



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HSo, 108. Play and sing this little phrase of greeting in all the keys, 
transposing as before, by fifths, (C,G,D, A. E,B, F#, Gb^b, Ab, Eb, Bb, 
F, and C;) and also by fourths, (C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Bb, Gb, F#, B, E, A, 
D, G, and C,) thus going around the circle in both directions. Choose the 
octave which will best accommodate your voice. Do not try to sing too 
high nor too low. In this lesson are all the intervals that you have practiced. 
These transpositions should be persisted in until they are familiar, and then 
should come into your review for several days. 



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Wo. 10©. Transpose this into such keys as your teacher directs. Perhaps you can play it in all the keys, though that would be difficult. You 
perceive that it is the same tune, wherever you play it, and that transposition is but changing the place as it were of a tune or lesson. Remember that 
a good practical knowledge of the intervals is of great value in the art of transposition. 



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*This cadence is printed in G, jnst to get you started, though you will probably need no assistance. Notice that in the key of G, the base begins an octaxe 
higher than it does in the first transposition of No. 106. It does not matter which octaye you take. Be careful to choose the best fingering. 



Exercises for the Practice of the Dotted Quarter. 



51 



No. 110. Dotted Quarter Note. Interval of the Seventh. 

Do not jerk the eighth notes that follow tho dotted quarters. Make them smooth and graceful. Be eareful of the plaee in the loft hand -where you 
reaeh a seventh. Try to get it aeeurately without looking. Remember not to striko the seeond of two notes on the same degree of the staff, when 
they are united by a tie. 



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]\To. 111. Name- the key-note, intervals and movement, and keep in mind all things neeessary to an intelligent and tasteful rendering of the piece. 



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52 



Exercises for Daily Practice—Second Series. 



Observe that the letters A, B, C 5 and D indicate the different exercises of eaeh number. Whatever else you omit to do, make thorough work of 
these exercises for daily practice, being at the same time systematic and judieious. 
HFo. 113. A Transpose this lesson into F. 15 Transpose to B flat. 




2 •* a 3 2 3 3 2 

X 1 1 1 

Play these lessons thoroughly as written before transposing them. 




W©. 118. A Transpose to E .flat. 



11 Transpose to A flat. 




Those who find it difficult to sing in tune, or whose voices need flexibility, may sometimes sing these lessons with the piano. 




ISTo. 114. A Transpose to D flat 



B Transpose to G- flat. 




If you sing, you can make use of "ah," or other vowel sounds, or the syllables 



K"o. 115. A Transpose to F sharp 



Transpose to B. 



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Play each lesson accenting the first note in each measure, and then again accenting the second, then the third, and so on. * 




Wo. 116. A 



Transpose to A. When you accent as directed above, make all but the accented note light. 



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If these lessons are nor the most interesting in the book, they are among the most, important. 



Exercises for Daily Practice— Second Series. 



53 



No. 119. A 




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Play as written — then transpose a seeond above 





No. 130. A 



Transpose a third above. 



r¥o. 131. Observe that the third measure in each of these exereises is to be played four times. Transpose the lessons a part of the time into the 
the key of Dfr. Hold down the keys indieated by the tied whole notes, but be very careful to hold no others. 



FOUR TDTE8 




54 



Second Time through the Keys. Double Notes and Single Scales. 



"SOFTLY THE SHADES." 
So. 13C. Double Notes for the Kight Hand. Kitard e dim. 

- Strike these double notes with the hand only — lifting it from the wrist as illustrated by the cut. When the notes succeed eaeh other, as in the 
third measure, the movement may be by the fingers only. Observe that you are now to notice and become familiar with the interval produced by the 
double notes, as well as those produced by successions. 




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No. 127. Double Notes in the Left Hand- 
Try the left hand alone until you ean strike neatly from the wrist. Notice and name the intervals in the Base. Look on page 64 for the numbers 
not found here, and learn them in their order. As they are learned add them to your daily practiee. 



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" aSTIGKKCT'S SHADES 3STO ILOIISrGKEIR." 
Wo. 130. Reaching an Octave with, the Left Hand.. 

Notice the key you arc in, the names of tones and intervals as you play. Give out the voice freely, and take breath in right places. 

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Exercises in various styles. Preparatory Songs. Hands moved from the Wrist. 



55 



NO. 132. In learning a lesson of any length, do not play the whole of it over and over, but take a few measures and practice until you have learned 
them well, then a few more, and so on. " 

RONDO MOVEMENT. 



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STo. 133. Think what intervals the double notes of the right hand make. Strike from the wrist. Left hand smooth and steady. 



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"G^IHTST THE BRIQHT "V7"HSTGS." 

KTo. 134* What is the key note herd ? How are you to strike the double notes ? Should you take breath between syllables ? 



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2. Wreaths of . rare beau - ty we're twin - ing, Soon they will grace the sweet bowers — Oh, in the gar - den so fragrant, 



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Swift - ly fly mo - ments and hours — While the bright wreaths we are twin - ing, Swift - ly fly mo - ments and hours. 



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Second time through the Keys. Double Notes and Single Scales. 



No. 13G. Do not count faster at the easy places, but bo sure to eount so slowly, all through the piece, that you will go steadily through the hard 
plaees without stumbling or retarding the time. 



HONDO MOVEMENT. 





"Wo. 137. Adhere earefully to the fingering. Do not begin the erescendos too loud, nor the diminuendos too soft. 

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No. 138. Do not hold tho keys down where there are rests. Let the hand strike up as well as down where the eighth notes are. What interval 
prevails in the right hand ? 

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57 



KT©. 110. Notiee intervals — make right movements of hands. Leave notes before rests neatly. 

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STo. 141. " "^HERE SWEETEST IFILO^WTEIRS O-EOW." 

Play these lessons earefully and thoroughly before singing thein. Be eareful not to play and sing faster and faster. (No 142 next.) 





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!RTo. 14:3. Observe here that the staeeato and also the mareato will require that both hands be lifted alike, although double notes in the left and 
single notes in the right. Keep the right hand still at the legato marks, and move it laterally only, at the seales. When two figures are given for one 
note, you are at liberty to take either fingering. At the first note of this number use " 2 " at eommeneing, and "x" after D. C. 

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Second time through the Keys. Double Notes and Single Scales. 



No. 144. THIIE T^WO IFIFLIIEIISriDS IF>OL:k:-A._---(ELEVENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

If the hand is not large enough to strike an octave, omit the upper note. Is there any other interval than the third in the treble ? 




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STo. 146. THE T"WO FIRXEIISriDS FOLiKiuft.. — (ELEVENTH DUET— Primo.) 

What key is this piece in ? What kind of time ? What movement has it ? Have you practiced No. 145 ? 

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HTo. 149. Enharmonic Change. 

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59 



Mo. 151. 




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f lesson afterwards measure by measure. 



QUICK-STEP MOVEMENT. 




Wo. 154:* Give a little accent to the beginning of the measure, but not too much. Let the power of the aceent vary with loud, medium and soft. 



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]Vo. 15 C If you wish to learn to play more rapidly, praetiee the lessons slowly and steadily, and they will seem to eomc right of themselves. If 
you attempt to hurry them, they will become irregular, and you will be apt to make mistakes that it will take you a long time to eorrect. In the 
eighth, measure let the first finger strike, then slip the thumb in its plaee, without letting up the key. 



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60 



Second Time through the Keys. Double Notes and Single Scales. 



"look: j±r&rj±rz- to the fields." 

Wo, 1ST* It will be a good plan to select from these pieces and songs such as you like, and learn to play them without the notes, that you may play 



or sing for your friends when asked. No. 158 is on page 65. 





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1. Look a - way to the fields of the hnr - vest, See the reap - er a - raid the grain, How it rus - ties and trem-bles fce- 

2. 'Tis the song of a true heart so h;ip - py, As he gath - ers the shi-ning store, And he thinks of the soft hour of 



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fore him, Like the rain rip - pies on the main. And list! 
twi-light When the la - bor of day is o'er. And see! 



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As he sweeps o'er the gold - en plain. 
As his eye seeks the cot - tage door. 



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]Vo. 150, Impress upon your mind the idea that you are striving, by slow and careful practice, to play smoothly and correctly, and you will thus 
acquire rapidity, together with beauty of execution ; whereas if you attempt to carry things by storm, and try to make a rapid player by practicing 
rapidly, you will probably fail in all of these things. 



K0ND0 MOVEMENT. 



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]\To. 1G0. It will require some care to move the fingers only in one hand, and from the wrist with the other, at the same time. 

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Exercises in various styles. Preparatory Songs. Hands moved from the Wrist. 



61 



Wo. 161. 



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1. Rain - drops are fall- ing, they pat - ter on the au-tumn leaves; Low winds are sigh - ing a - mid the bare and leaf - less trees. 

2. Yet 'tis not drea - ry with -in our qui - et hap - py home, While bright and cheer - y a-round our hearth the evenings come. 



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au-tumn fruits are now ours — So we will not heed the storm-king's dark and wintVy powers. 



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BfO. 163. Practice this lesson at first without accent, or other expression than loud and soft; then practice it giving the proper expression to the 
legato phrases, syncopations, &c. When learned, the effect should be bright and sparkling, without being very fast. 



GALOP MOVEMENT. 
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Mo. 1G4. Melody and Accompaniment. 

You observe that the base has a kind of song to sing. Let it be well connected, and varied as to loud and soft, according to your taste. You will 
find that, generally, a melody sounds well to be crescendo as it ascends, and diminuendo as it descends. 



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62 



Second Time through the Keys. Double Notes and Single Scales. 



STo. 165. "O, HOW SWEET. 

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1. how sweet are the echoes at eve - ning, "When the vil - lage a-round us is still, Of the shepherd boy's pipe soft - ly 

2. And the riv - er be-low gen - tly moan-ing, Hath a charm in the tone of its song, As all dim in the shade of the 



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peal- ing, As he watch-es his flock on the hill. Tis the song of con-tentment and bless -ing, And it spreads far a - way o'er the 
gloam - ing, Its clear wa - ters flow light - ly a - long. How the moon in her splcn-dor on ris - ing, Loves to mir - ror her face in the 



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"No, 167. You have probably observed that the prineipal objects in going through the keys, this time, has been to strike double notes neatly fr un 
the wrist, and to play single scales, moving the hand laterally only. If you have not accomplished these objects, you had better by all means review 
until this is done. 



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]Vo. 168. Keep in mind the key, intervals, movements of hands, position, expression, and all things which will make you a thorough and intelligent 



musieian. 

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Exercise for three Players at one Piano. 



63 



KTo. 109. THE THREE EIRIZEISTIDS ~\KT Ji-TyTZ- — (TRIO— Primo.) 

This pieee will require great exactness in time, piteh and expression, to sound well. The one who plays this part sits at the upper part of the piano. 



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No. 170. THE THREE EE^XEZSTIDS "WALTZ. — (TRIO— Secondo.) 

Let the one who plays this part sit opposite the middle of the piano, a little higher than the others. Let tho left arm of this player be over the 
right of the one who plays the third. 



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]Vo. 171. THE THREE EZRIEHXTIDS "W'AH.TZ.— (TRIO— Terzo.) 

The player of this part sits at the lower part of the piano. Strike the base pretty firmly. The upper notes of the oetave ean be omitted. Let the 
right hand of the one who plays this part be under the left arm of the one who plays seeond. 



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64 



Exercises for Daily Practice—Third Series. 



Mo. 128. Scale of O. ^ n scales the fingers and thumbs do the work, the hands moving laterally only. Quite slow. 



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MO, 139. Scale of O. Your principal difficulty, at first, will be the management of the thumb. Observe the repeats. 



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M©. 139. Scale of Gr. ^° not jerk nor roll the hand when tho thumb passes under the fingers or the fingers over the thumb. 

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Mo. 135. Scale of D. Slow at first — Moderato at last — distinct and graceful always. 



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M©. 13©. Scale of A. Sometimes piano, sometimes mezzo, and sometimes forte. 



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MO 143 Scale Of E Sometimes equal, sometimes crescendo, and sometimes diminuendo. 



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Mo. 14S V Scale of B. Sometimes legato, sometimes marcato, and sometimes staccato. 



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Exercises for Daily Practice—Third Series. 



05 



]\]*0. 148. Scale Of F Sliarp. Apply previous remarks to all the sealeB. The right thumb here will need attention. 



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WO. 153* Scale Of D flat. Aequire good habits in the management of the thumb. 



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WO« 155. Seal© Of A flat. "When you are sure these are right, keep the eye* on the notes as mueh as possible. 



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Wo. 158. Scale Of E flat. The thumb should be passing under while the fingers are playing, in order to be in time. 



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WO. 1G2. Scale Of B flat. The fingerB should pass over the thumb as it strikes. Vary the style, p, xn,% f, • 



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WO. 1GG. Scale Of F. Observing the above directions, in the right amount of praetiee, will inBure Buecess. 



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66 



Exercises for Daily Practice— Fourth Series. 



RTo. 172. Observe that the third measure in eaeh division of these lessons is to be played four times. See Nos. 121-5, page 53. 
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Bfo. 177. These exereiscs are to be played in three different ways. Accent slightly the first note in each group. Slow at first 






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67 



No. 179. 



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No. 181. In all these exercises endeavor to strike the right key, in passing from one group to the next, without looking at your hands, 




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No. 182. Do not forget the light accent that the legato mark indicates. What is the largest interval here ? 



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Exercise for the Practice of the Appoggiatura and Repeating Notes. 



No. 184. THE SEOOnSTZD TRIO.--(TIIE THREE FRIENDS' SLEIGH-RIDE— Primo.) 

Remember that the appoggiatura has no time of its own, but borrows from the note which follows it, so it will be right to commence playing each 
appoggiatura when you commence the eount or part of the measure on whieh it comes. If the hand playing the upper part is small, use the thumb for 
the lower note in the third measure. Do you hear the sleigh-bells? 



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]Vo. 185. TIKE SEOOnSTZD TRIO.— (THE THREE FRIENDS' SLEIGH-RIDE— Secondo.) 

Directions for position and interlocking of arms same as on page 63. Do you hear the song of the sleigh-riders ? 

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No. 18©. THE SEC03>TID TRIO. — (THE THREE FRIENDS' SLEIGH-RIDE— Terzo.) 

Give the base firmly, that there may be a good foundation. Do you hear the clatter of the horses' feet ? 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement' 



69 



No. 187. The Common Chord of C in its three positions. 

Play every conimpn chord of C on the piano. Name the intervals combined in this chord. Name the chord and position as you play the lesson 
Move the fore arm as illustrated in the eut. Do not leave the lesson until you can make the changes with facility. 




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STO. 188. The same Lesson an OCtave lower. When the hand is too small to reach an octave, omit the lower note. 
Chords for the right hand are sometimes written on the base staff to avoid the use of so many added lines. 



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TVO. 189. The Common Chord of Gr in its three positions. What interval is made by the two base notes ? 

Play every common chord of G on the piano, before playing this lesson. Name again the intervals. Name the positions as you play them. 




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WO. 190. Tonic and Dominant. What interval from upper base to lower treble? 

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Do not strike one note of a chord after another, but all exactly together, and the right hand exactly with the left. 



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MO. 192. Other positions of the Tonic and Dominant. What interval from middle to upper note of right hand? 
Name the chord both by tonic and dominant and by letter — also the positions. In harmony intervals are counted upwards. 



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70 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



No. 193. Other positions of Tonic and Dominant Chords. 

Observe that the tones indicated by the base notes in each measure begin at the beginning of the measure — exactly with the first chord in the right 
hand. A note written in the middle or last part of a measure, must have its sound at the beginning of the measure, if there is no rest or other note 
before it. Name chords and positions as before. 





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No. 104. The Common Chord of F — Sxibdominant. 

Before playing this lesson, play the common chord of F in all its positions. Name the chords of tonic, dominant and subdominant as they occur, 
with their positions. Observe the intervals of which these chords are composed. 



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Observe previous directions Remember that in harmony intervals are counted upwards. 




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No. 198. Name chords and positions when you first play the lesson through, and think what they are as ypu play it afterwards. 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Pore Arm Movement. 



71 



sutsra-i^ra- _a_s .a-ust .a-zr/t. 

Heretofore, in this book, you have been singing as the child talks before learning its letters, without reference to the rules of the art 
— except as they applied equally to the piano. You may have reecived hints when some fault has been prominent, but your singing thus 
far has only been preparatory to the study of the voice, whieh we now commence. 

Children, and especially young persons who are near the time when the voice changes, should be exceedingly eareful not to strain their 
vocal organs, and some should not sing at all during this process. All should avoid fatigue, practicing at first but a little while at a 
time, and no one should sing when the throat is sore. Keep yourself as healthy as possible if you wish to sing or do any thing else well. 
If, however, you attend to all the things here given, and which are designed to aid you to become an intelligent and accomplished 
musician, the singing will not be apt to oceupy too much of your time. 



No. 199. General view of the Voice and its Use. 

Sing the scale without the instrument if you can, that the difficulties which you have to overcome may the more easily be pereeived, especially by 
yourself. Learn well the syllables and their application, as they are great aids to pronunciation and enunciation. Adhere to the right position of body, 
throat and head. Deliver the tone freely and naturally, without obstruction from lips, tongue or teeth. Try, just here, more to throw out the voice 
than to make it very musical. Fill the lungs quietly and quickly. Use little breath. Let the tone be neither thin or hollow. Get the exact vowel 
sounds of the syllables, and give the consonants distinctly. Sing this scale once at least, for each of the points above meutioned. 






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No. 900. Melody formed on Chords. 

Observe that you are singing the tones of the tonic, dominant and subdominant chords — arpeggios for the voice. Name the chords of which the 
melody and accompaniment are composed. Notice carefully the intervals you produce in singing, and have, as soou as possible, their sounds in your 
memory, that you may give them with readiness and accuracy. Your teacher will probably here explain to you those things about the organs of the 
voice, that are most necessary for you to know ; or you may read a description of them among the explanations in the fore part of the book. See that 
the tone is well formed and delivered. This will depend upon the pharynx, and the opening of the mouth, together with the position of the lips, tongue, 
teeth, &c. See that the intonation is exact, and that the breathing is right. Attend also to the utterance of the words. 






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No. 201. Melody on Scale. Passing Notes. 

You observe that a melody may consist of arpeggios of chords, as in the preceding lesson, or of scale forms, as here. You perceive that the phrases 
in this lesson rest on, and are accompanied by tonic, dominant and subdominant chords, though there are some tones in each phrase that do not belong to 
the accompanying chord. These are called passing notes. 



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No. 202. You can probably see what chords should accompany this lesson — as you can tell what chord would be made if the notes of eaeh 
measure were struck together. The accompaniment of the preceding lesson would do, though different positions in some cases would bring the upper 
Luie oi' the ^Lortt ticarof to the Vocal part. 



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72 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



No. 303. Right Muscular Action in Breathing. Phrasing. 

Remember to draw the muscles under the lungs in and up when you take breath, causing the ribs and top of the eh est to expand. Retain this 
position firmly while singing, allowing the muscles to return most gradually to their former position. Sing a phrase in a breath, using little breath 
especially at the beginning of the phrases. Take the time fast enough not to exhaust the lungs, and slower as your power to sustain increases. Think 
while you sing, whether you are in tonic, dominant, or subdominant harmony. Use syllables or vowel sounds as your teacher directs. 




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IVo. 5504. The Chord. Of the Seventh. Before playing this, play and name all fho positions of the chord of the seventh of G. 

Observe that there are four positions of the chord of the seventh, because there are four different tones jn its composition. Name as you play. 



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STo. 3055. You perceive that the chord of the seventh occurs only on the dominant. You see also that it is made by adding seven — not seven 
in the scale, but seven in the chord — to the one, three, five and eight, which make the common chord. 




Harmony. Instrumental and, Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



73 



SUMMER SCENES, No. I. — The Little River. 

Wo. 20G. Quality of Tone. 

Observethat the main objeet of these songs is quality of tone. You will see that by distending the pharynx, you ean make your voiee more appro- 
priate to singing about a "eavern" than a "smiling little river." This would be a wrong quality for this song. Express naturally and pleasantly the 
feeling or emotion that these words would exeite were the seene before you and the words really your own. The pharynx should be nearly in its usual 
position as when you are talking — just enough distended to permit the eoming into the voice of the right feeling. Nos. 206 and 207 are not to be 
sung together — they are separate songs. Sing the one that your voiee reaches most easily — your teaeher will direct you which to practice. For the 
female voiee, it should be decided carefully which tones are to be sung with the lower, and which with the medium register; probably E should be 
in the medium. Observe breathing and artieulatiou. Point out where the melody in these songs is made of chords, and where of seale forms. 



WITH QUIET CHEERFULNESS. 



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2. May our lives be like thee, Gentle little stream, 



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Sending all a - round us Love's ee - les - tial beam, 






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Cheering still and bless - ing All up - on our way, 



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At the close of day. 
Of our earthly day. 



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No. 208. 



SUMMER SCENES, No. II.— The Meadow Flowers. 



Apply to the singing of these songs sueh knowledge as you have, with regard to forming and delivering the voiee, taking and managing the breath, 
speaking the words, as well as to the special objeet here, viz : quality of tone. Touch the accompaniment neatly and firmly, but not too loud, and make 
the whole performance appropriate and natural. 



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Are a thousand flowers, 

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How the rain-drop sparkles, 



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Lil - ies, too, and vio - lets, Everywhere are (omit*) 

Modest blossoms bow - ing To the meadow- queen, 

In their perfume la - den Home of emerald (omit) 



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74 



Voice Exercises for Daily Practice— First Series. 



Wo. £09. To discover clearly the lower and medium registers of the female voice. 

In this lesson let the G be sung in the medium, and all the other tones in the lower register ; make the difference very apparent at first by causing 
the voice to break as it were from the lower tones to the higher, making the former firm, and perhaps masculine, and the latter softer, rounder and 
more fluty. After the difference in the registers is distinctly perceived, practice these exercises (Nos. 209, 210 and 211, all of which have the same 
accompaniment), carrying the voice, portamento, from the first to the second tone in each measure, as one of the first steps towards equalizing the 
registers. All female voices do not need this practice. Men's voices requiring it can take this same exercise an octave higher. 



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No. 212. For Female Voices. 

You have often been told that the great object with regard to registers is to strengthen the medium as far down at least as D. You perceive that 
you can sing several tones in this part of your voice with either register, and it is possible that you have been forcing your lower register too high. 
The only remedy is patient and persistent practice with the medium register as far down as mentioned above. So in this lesson you only sing C in the 
lower register — all the rest in the medium. Do not be discouraged if at first the tones are weak, they will become stronger by proper practice. The 
letters L. and M. stand for Lower and Medium register. You can accompany yourself with the chord of C throughout, if you choose. (Men's voices 
an octave higher.) 



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l^O. 313. In this exercise sing first in one register, and then in the other as directed by the letters, and persist in this day after day, until you 
can pass easily from one register to the other, and until there is some uniformity in their strength. Accompany the E's with the Tonic chord (C), and 
the D's with the Dominant chord (Gr). 





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SFO. £14. Strive to make the medium tones firm. Do not aspirate them when you. change from the lower register. Lose as little breath as possible. 
Accompany the F's with the Subdominant chord (F). In both these lessons, striking the chords only often enough to sustain the voice, will give you a 
better opportunity to listen to the change of register. 

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No. 215. Practice of Vowel Elements. 

Give each vowel its exact sound, and see that the tones are well formed and delivered. Do not distend the pharynx, or in any waj try to 
make the voice emotional, for there is here no emotion to be expressed. Simply see that the tones are given out without obstruction from lips, tongue 
or teeth, that the lungs are well and rightly filled, and the breath properly used, and that the vowel sounds are pure and exact. Give the accompani- 
ment such a form as pleases you, only do not play the chords too loud. Do not carry the lower register above E. If you can, use the medium 
register down to C. The vowel " ah" is usually the most difficult to get exact. The syllable " Sea," used by Mr. Bassini in his works on the voice, is 
excellent to aid in getting the right position of mouth and throat for this vowel. Sing two or more measures in a breath, if you can, but do not 
exhaust the lungs. Connect the four vowels well together. 

(a as in fate, e as in meet.) 



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Dominant Seventh. Tonic. 



Voice Exercises for Daily Practice— First Series. 



75 



No. SIC Practice of Consonant Elements. 

Observe that you are to give the sounds that these letters stand for in the language, and not the names of the letters themselves. For instance 
1 indicates the first of the two elements that make the word " la/' which is given while the end of the tongue is held against the roof of the mouth 
just back of the front teeth. The sound of which m is the sign with the mouth closed, n as in no, v as in vow, th as in thou, d as in do, b as in bow, 
g as in go, r as in row, which should be rolled or trilled, not much, but enough to give force and distinctness. If you wish your utterance of words in 
your singing to be distinct, elegant and effective, strengthen the various muscles and organs of artieulation. This is a gradual process, and is accom- 
plished only by regular daily practice, on the principle of improving the museles of the fingers, or any other part of the body, by appropriate exercises 
judiciously persisted in. Neither the tune nor the poetry is very interesting, but you may accompany your practice by the tonie and dominant chords 
(the seventh may eome into the dominant), making as much variety as you please, by giving the accompaniment different rhythmic and arpeggie forms. 
Try the pitch also at C above this Gr, and aeeompany with the Tonie and Subdominant. Don't fail to make thorough work of this exercise. 




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STo. 217, See that the tones are closely linked together where the legato mark indicates a connection. Do not carry the lower register too high. 
Most voices will take F in the medium. You observe that some of the phrases in these exercises eome where you ean sing the lower tone in the lower 
register, and the upper in the medium. It is very important that you stop and sing sueh phrases several times over in your daily practice, that you 
may equalize as quickly as possible the tones of the two registers, and thus make your voice in that respect symmetrical. Increase the power of the 
medium register at this point, and modify the quality of the lower. 

n Tonic. Dominant. Dominant. Tonic. Tonic. Subdominant. Subdom't. Tonic. Tome. Subdominant. Subdom't. Dom. Seventh. Tonic. 



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"Wo. SIS. In this exercise female voices should be careful to make the transition from the medium to the upper register in the right way and 
place. Remember that for the upper register it is probable that the voeal eords are brought together and made to vibrate as in the lower register, 
with this difference, that nearly one-third of their extent is held immovable by the little museles referred to in the fore part of the book. 

Tonic. Dominant. Dominant. Tonic. Tonic. Subdom't. Subdom't. Tonic. Tonic. Dominant. Dominant. Tonic. Tonic. Dom't. Tonic. 



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Mo. 319. Remember where the repeat marks are, to sing the upper tone in the medium register, and the lower in the lower. Repeat each 
phrase so marked at least four times every time you sing the lesson. 

Tonic. Subdom't. Subdom't. Tonic. Tonic. Dom't 7th. 7tb. Tonic. Tonic. Dominant. 7th. Tonic. Tonic. Dominant. Dorn't. Tonic. 



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ftTo.SS®. Breathe only at rests. Let the tones be well joined, and yet distinct. Articulate the tones without separating them. Avoid rigidity or 
stiffness in the throat and lower jaw. Do not begin the phrases loud, and do not waste any breath. Hold the lungs full by keeping them distended 
rather than by closing the throat. Leave the organs of the throat free to do their proper work. Strike your accompanying chord at the beginning of 
each measure. 



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76 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



5To. 221. GALLOPABE,— (TWELFTH DUET— Secondo.) 

Name tonic, dominant and subdominant ehords, and their positions. Learn both Secondo and Primo of this and the following duets, whether you 
play them with another or not ; for they are intended to improve your ehord and seale practice. 



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No. 222. Sixteenth Notes. 

You observe that the value of the sixteenth notes is the same, whether they arc single or in groups. Writing them one way or the other is merely 
a matter of eonvenienee. The chords in the left hand are not full, but perhaps you can tell where the harmony is — tonie, dominant or subdominant. 
Which is it in the first measure ? Second ? Third ? &c. 

DANCE MOVEMENT. _*„____ ,__. K,-, A . ° „ T , c l^ . • ggg- 



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5fO, 223. You pereeive that this melody, and No. 224, are made of chords, with the exception of the last phrase in each. Such female voices as 
are in wrong habits with regard to registers, should be careful in all these lessons to make the ehange in the right place. For example — in this lesson, 
most persons would sing E and all above in medium, and perhaps make the last run entire, in that register. 



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Wo. 224. This line may be accompanied by the previous accompaniment. Learn No. 225 (page 100) in its order. 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



77 



No. £S<&. g^x.:lo:e 3 ^:de-"-(twelfth duet— pmmo.) 

Observe that the two Lands are playing the same melody an oetave apart. Strike the notes exactly together, and try to notice whether the aeeom- 
panying harmony is tonic, dominant, or subdominant. 

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SUMMER SCEWES, Wo. III.— The Forest. 



It must be an unusually mellow lower register that can sing this first line. It will be better in the medium. Although this is marked "eheerfully," 
and you are, as in all these songs, to keep" the midway quality of tone — the pharynx being neither distended so as to make the hollow or sombre quality, 
nor contracted for the bright or more gay — still there is some variation in it, which will best be attained by allowing the imagination to place you in the 
scenes you deseribe. and then give them true and natural expression. It is pleasant to be in the forest on a summer's day. 



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1. Here! 

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Here in the for 



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78 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



j\To. 338. In your accompaniments you ean choose such positions of the chords as will best sustain your voice. If your ear is not yet cultivated 
so that it is true, take those positions which make the upper note of the chord coincide exaetly with your voice. This refers more especially to the 
higher notes of the melody The dash signifies that the chord is continued. The rythmic form of accompaniment adopted in No. 227, is perhaps best 
for these exercises. Do not practice the lessons that are too high, or too low for you. Avoid carefully all straining of the voice, especially for high 
tones. Remember that these lessous are principally for delivery of the voice, articulation, phrasing and the proper use of the registers. 



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Tonic. 



WO. 339. Remember that the word "seventh" means the chord of the dominant seventh. 



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No. 333. Tonic, Dominant, and Sixbdominant, in the key of G. 

Observe that what was dominant in G is now tonic ; and what was tonic in G is now subdominant ; and that the chord of D is the dominant. 




]VTo. 334. Before playing this lesson, play the chord of the seventh of D, in all its positions. You observe that the chord of the seventh near the 
close of the piece has no tifth in it. It is often so used. What tone is seven in the chord of D ? What is five? Three ? One ? 





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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



79 



No. 235. Melody on Chords. 

Play the accompaniment first, naming the chords, and think while you sing whether you are in tonic, dominant or subdominant harmony. Become 
familiar with the application of the syllables in this key. Think of intervals, in chords and in melody, as far as possible. 






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No. 237. Management of tlie Breath.. 

If your teacher has directed you to make use of any particular vowei or word, for this lesson, do not forget it. Breathe only at the rests. 



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Ton. Seventh. Ton. Subd. Ton. Subd. Ton. * Subd. Seventh. Tonic. 



80 



Third time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



No.£39. QUICKSTEP,— (THIRTEENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

Say whether tonic, dominant, or subdoniinant — common chord, or chord of the seventh; and tell their positions. 



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Adhere carefully to the fingering. 



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No. 241. 



SUMMER SCENES, No. IV.— The Smiling Land. 



Remember the principal object of these songs. Do not let the throat and mouth be so distended as to make a hollow sound, nor, on the other hand, 
so contracted as to prevent the freedom and naturalness of the tone. Above all, avoid a characterless, unmeaning tone. Take breath so as not to inter- 
fere with the sense and connection of the words. Name the chords from which the accompaniment is made. 






.ALLEGRETTO. 



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1. O'er Hie fair and smil - ing land, The rays of sun - light fall, 

2. Join our voi - ecs in the strnin, So cheer - fill sweet and clear, 



From the fra - grant mead - ows wide Sweet 

Sum - mer with her hnp - py birds and 



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From the dis 
Sing, for 'tis 



per - fumes come to all, 

bloom - ing flow'rs is here, 



tant for - est too The hap 
the hap - piest time Of all 



py Song birds call, 
the hap - py year. 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



81 



No. 343. QUICKSTEP. — (THIRTEENTH DUET— Primo.) 

When this is well learned the movement should be pretty fast. See that there is no jerking of the hand when tho thumb goes under. 
8va.... 



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No. 244. Common Claord of Tonic, Dominant and S^lbdominant, in the key of ID. 

First play the common chord of A (A, C#, E, A,) in its various places upon the piano. The chord of A is the only new chord here, though the 
others have changed their names — that which was tonic- in G- now being subdominant, &c. Name chords and positions as usual. 




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No. 245. Before playing this, play the chord of the seventh in all its positions. 




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First time. 

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Second time. 



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Do re mi fa sol la sol do si la sol fa mi re mi fa sol la si do la sol mi sol fa mi re do re mi sol fa mi re do si do 



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82 



Third time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



STo. 347. WALTZ, — (FOURTEENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

Three or five is often omitted in the chord of the seventh. 

^ALLEGRETTO. __^—_ ^ 

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Sing both melodies if the voice will reach the tones easily; if not, only one. The same accompaniment will do for both. 



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No. 249. Management of the Breath. ,.,.,. . . TT r<Lil , Al . „ . ., , . . - ., , 

Play this accompaniment, naming the arpeggio chords and positions before singing. Use little breath, especially at the beginning ot the phrases, 

when the luns^ are full. Let the tone be natural and well delivered. ^ 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Pore Arm Movement. 



83 



No. 352. 

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No. 253. 



SUMMER SCENES, No. V.— The Woodland. 



The upper part here is only for higher male voices — they needing the praetice in upper tones — while with female voices the medium register is the 
one that requires most attention. Tenors should use the falsetto above E, and make the high chest tones as pure and sweet as possible. Name chords, 
and keep in mind the harmony while you sing. 



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1. Hear ye the song of the wood - land ! 

2. Come let us roam thro' the wood - land ! 



Sweet, sweet and clear. 
'Mid scenes so dear.. 



Gai - ly the wild birds are sing - ing, 
List to the voi - ccs a - round us, 



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Sum-mer, glad sum-mer is here 



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Summer, glad summer is here. 
Summer, glad summer is here. 




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84 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



IVo. 354. Chords in the key of A. 

Play first the common chord of E, (E, G#, B and E,) in its various positions. Observe what the new chord is, and how the names and relations of 
the other chords have changed. Name tonic, dominant, and subdominant, as heretofore. 



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No. 256. Dotted Eighth Notes. 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



85 



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When you come to a hard spot in your lesson, practice that separately until you have overcome the difficulty, then play it in connection with the 



rust of the lesson. 
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88 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



No. 262. Melodies of Scale Forms. 

Sing both melodies if you ean reaeh them easily; if not, only one. Do not allow a wrong habit 



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No. 863. SUMMER SCENES, No. VI. — The milside. 

CnoiCE Notes. The tone, faee and manner of the singer should express interest in the subjeet of the song, and should be appropriate to it 



1. To the rock - y Ml 



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y hill - side let us go, Ere twi-light shad-ows fall, And we'll list the ech - oes as they wake At 
2. On the roek - y hill - side fra - grant grows The hon - ey - suek - le sweet, Aud the spreading fern its o - dor sends From 



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ev - ery joy - ous eall. List the cch - oes, List the eeh - oes, As they an - swer ev - ery joy - ous eall. 
many a ealm re - treat. 'Mid the flow - ers, And the ech - oes, Let its seek the eool and ealm re - treat. 



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Mo. 264. Tonic, Dominant and SubSominant, in the key of E. Dotted Quarter Note. 

Before playing this, play the ehord of B (B, D#, F# and B.)-in all its positions. Name ehords and positions in the lesson as you play them. 




Mo. 26*5. When there are ehoice notes, sing either upper or lower as you ean ; or each in turn, if you have eompass enough. 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



87 



Mo. 2©©. Dispersed Harmony. 

In the dispersed chords, name the tones that are in the left nand, and those that are in the right. Name chords and positions also. 




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Mo. 207. Give all these exercises such expression as will make them sound best, besides attending to the more especial objects for which they are 
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Seventh. 



Seventh. 



Wo. 2GS. Immediately after filling the lungs full you will be inclined to sing loud, and use a good deal of hreath. Do neither — but make a clear, 
firm, yet soft tone, and increase a little towards the middle of the phrase. Make the change of register as neatly as possible. 



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Third time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



No. 370. SUMMER SCENES, No. TIL— The fceafy Bell. 

You perceive that the harmony of the tonic is always the coramou chord, and so of the subdominant; but the harmony of the dominant may be the 
chord of the seventh. The upper part is intended for the practice of the higher voices, especially of tenors in the upper register. 

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1. I know a fai - ry bow - er with -in the leaf-y dell, "Where 'mid the woodbine arch - eg the mer-ry songbirds dwell. 'Tis 

2. The wild rose blushes sweet - ly, nnd lifts her perfum'd head When morning wakes from slum-ber, and hours of night are fled. The 



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sweet to hear their iuu - sie, se - cure from summer's heat, And pass the noon-tide hours... with - in their cool re - treat. 

sun-shine tries how vain - ly, to peep a - mid the leaves, With - in these woodbine arch - es that Na-ture bright - ly weaves. 



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No. 271. Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in the key of B. 

Before playing and naming the chords of this lesson, practice the common chord of F sharp (F#, A#, C# and Ffl,) in all its positions. Can you 
tell readily tonic, dominant aud subdominant by the sound? 



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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Pore Arm Movement. 



89 



No. 373. Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in the key of F sharp. 

Before playing this, play the chord of C sharp (C#, E# ; G# and C#,) in all its positions. In what measures does the chord of tne seventh occur ? 




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Wo. 375. Chords in Gr flat. Enharmonic change from F sharp- 
Observe that the lesson is only to the eye different from No. 273. The numbers not found here are on pp. 100 and 101. 




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No. 277. Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in the key ofD flat. 

Play the common chord of A flat, (Afc>, C, E^, and AJ?,) before practicing this lesson. Observe previous directions about naming chords. &c. 




Mo. 379. Tonic, Dominant, and Subdominant Chords in the key of Aflat. 

Practice the new chord first. Observe the different names of these chords as they occur in different keys. Name them as before. 

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Na. 380. Triplets. 

In playing full chords having three notes for one hand, use generally those fingers which are most convenient; preferring not to use the thumb on 
black keys when you can easily avoid it. Using the thumb on black keys is avoided in playing scale passages, but not in playing chords. 

i- r=72 " ' 




90 



Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



No. 281. GrJ^JLOLiOlP^ — (SIXTEENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

Observe that the tonic, dominant and subdominant chords here occupy the same places upon the staff that they do in the key of A, (three sharps) 
but that they arc a half step lower. 



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STo. £855. So far as appearance is concerned the syllables apply as in the key of A. Can you accompany this with the right chords without 
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JfO. 383. Take the movement slow, so that you shall exercise your power of sustaining tones, but do not exhaust the lungs. Be careful to use 
little breath, especially at the beginning of the phrases. You cannot be successful without properly controlling the abdominal muscles. 



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]Vo. £84. Do not sing those lessons which are too high for your voice : there should be no straining to reach the upper tones. Try various forms 
of accompaniment — as striking with both hands at the same time, and one after the other, &c. 




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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Fore Arm Movement. 



91 



No. 88G. <3--A^X j O:E > - — (SIXTEENTH DUET— Primo.) 

Thjs piece should sound bright and lively. To produce this effect it must be perfect — not a wrong note, not a wrong accent, not a wrong position 
or movement. 
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8U9SEB SCENES, No. VIII.- The Orchard. 



Still the quality of cheerfulness in the tone. Let your appearance and manner be such as one would naturally assume in uttering, with interest, 
words of this kind. 



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1. Oh the trees a - gain are all in bios - som, And the air is full of o - dors sweet And the 

2. In the wood - land wide, and in the mead - ow f See the flow - rets spring-ing fresh and fair. the 



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rob -in sing - ing on the topmost bough The ear - ly sum-mer morn doth greet. Hear the rob - in! 

wild bees humming at their dai - ly toil, Make mu - sic, mer - ry mu - sie there. the wild - bees! 



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Hear the rob - m sing -ing on the top - most bough, The ear- ly sum-mer morn -ing greet. 
the wild -bees hum-ming at their dai - ly toil, Make mu - sie, mer - ry mu - sie there. 



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ST©. 288. Tonic, Dominant and Siibdominant Chords in the key of E fiat. 

Praetiee the new chord first. Give the right motion to the hand. Observe previous directions. 




ItfO. 28$. C=100. You observe that you never find the chord of the seventh in the tonic or subdomin<int 

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Wo. 290. r=132 QUICKSTEP,— (SEVENTEENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

Name chords and positions. Endeavor all the time to notice the harmony in which you are playing, whether tonic, dominant or subdominant — 
common chord, or chord of the seventh. No. 291 next, on page 101. 



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SUMMER SCENES, No. IX.— The Silver liake. 



Praetiee this aeeonipaniment before singing the song. Do uot leave a chord down beyond its time. See that the quality of tone is right. 



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1. Come with me, the moon is beam - ing O'er the 

2. de - lay not, time is fly - ing, And our 



sil - ver wa - ters of the lake so fair; 
com - rades call us from the peb - bly strand. 



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93 



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E'en the gen - tie breeze is sigh - ing, As it waits to bear us from the dew - y land ; 'Mid the hills in 



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QUICKSTEP.— (SEVENTEENTH DUET— Prtmo.) 



Can you distinguish the tonie, dominant and subdominant chords, in the second, by the sound, while you are playing the first? 
r=132 8ya T. 



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STo. 304:. Practice this accompaniment before singing the lesson. Notice what chords these arpeggios arc made of. Notice alsotheir positions. 
Are you improving in the management of your breath ? 



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No. 206. Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in the key of B flat. 

Observe that the new chord here (F) was subdominant in the key of C. Play and name the chords, according to previous directions. 




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95 



Wo. 397. Pianissimo, Fortissimo, and tlieir Abbreviations. 

This you perceive is a regular march movement. Let the time be kept with great steadiness. Not fast. 



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5To. 998. It is believed that you can perceive the chords of which this lesson is composed without direction from the book — perhaps without aid 
from your teacher. Do you know in what key you are practicing here? 



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No, 399. It will be a good plan for female voices to carry the medium register down to D, and perhaps to C. 



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STo. 309. Sing with syllables, and also with vowel sounds. 



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Second time. 

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Third Time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



STo. SOI. SOXJ"V^E3STII^. — (EIGHTEENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

Endeavor to become familiar with the position of notes on added lines and spaces. 
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No. 304. With syllables and vowel sounds — delivering the tones freely, and managing the breath according to directions. 

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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Pore Arm Movement. 



97 



No. 305. SOTJVEN1B. — (EIGHTEENTH DUET— Pbimo.) 

Make the melody as legato as possible. 

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]Vo, 306. SUMMER SCENES, IVo. X.— The Tale. 

You observe that the emotion to be expressed, in all these songs, is nearly the same. The pupil should be able to give this quality exactly. 
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98 



Third time through the Keys. Chords, and the Art of Singing. 



IVo. 307. Tonic, Dominant, and Snbdominant Harmonies in the key of F. 

It is hoped that your reviewing has been so perfect that you can turn back and play any lesson perfectly. Try it. 

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]\To. 310. .A-TT STJISSB-— .- (NINETEENTH DUET— Secondo.) 

You will observe that the accent here is different from previous lessons in which there were six eighth notes in the measure. 
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Harmony. Instrumental and Vocal Exercises and Scales. Pore Arm Movement. 



99 



STo. 312. SUMMER SCENES, Mo. XI.— The Brooklet. 

Right quality of tone — elear and distinet artieulation — right breathing and management of the breath, &e. 



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1. By the brook - let elear where the wil - low boughs sway, In the soft wind from the west, Is the grass - y slope and the 

2. Yes the brook - let sings where the wil - low bends low, And my heart joins in the song, And the hap - py flow'rs on the 



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No. 313. A.XJ SUISSE, — (NINETEENTH DUET— Primo.) 

You will find that different expressions may be given to this duet. Try several — and agree with your companion upon the one that you like best 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Fifth Series. 



No 314. Observe that the thumbs are held on D while the fingers move over them. Play the third measure in each section four times. 
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No. 315. In both these exercises keep the hands in as good position and as still as possible. 
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101 



HT-2. 373. Scale and Arpeggio in B. 




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Mo. 274 & 37G. Scale and Arpeggio in F sharp, and. Scale and. Arpeggio in G- flat together. 
You pereeive that the keys of FJ and Gk differ only in their representation : to the ear they are the same. 



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ISTo. 378. Scale and Arpeggio in D flat. 

There is nothing more important to your playing than these seales. They should be praetieed daily and thoroughly. Adhere to the nn«*erina- 




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Fourth time through the Keys. Thorough Base. 



Wo. 31G. Transposition. Here is a cadence of four chords, viz.: tonic, subdominant, dominant and tonie. These, taken in their three 
positions, make a musical section of eight measures. Play this section in all the keys, transposing by fifths and also by fourths. It will aid you, to 
think, of tonic, dominant and subdominant, and their positions, as you play. The beginning in G- is given. 



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Wo. 317. Play this section of cadences in all the keys. It is given partly in G — enough to aid you to eommence right. See ^ that every dominant 
chord has a seventh in it. Transpose both by fifths and by fourths. Name the chords and their positions as you play. This is a very important 
exercise ; do not stop practicing it until it is perfect. 

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No. 318. Observe that you tell by the base what chord you are to play, and by the Wo. 319. Remember that the dash continues the effect 
treble what position of the chord. Ecmember that, when the base note has no figure of the previous figure, 
under it the common ehord is indicated, and when "7," the chord of the seventh. 



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Wo. 330. Observe that the seventh is always a step below the eighth in Wo. 331. Notice that the chord of the seventh is always a dom- 
thc chord of the seventh. A 7 but a half-step below would not sound well. inant chord. Name chords and positions as you play. 



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Wo. 333. Were you to put the right seventh into a tonic chord it would instantly Wo. 333. Play each lesson until it is perfectly familiar, 
become a dominant chord, and the key would be changed. Observe directions carefully. 



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Wo. 334. I>o not neglect to name the chords and their positions. Wo. 335. Name by letter, and by tonic, dominant and subdominant 




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Fourth time through the Keys. Thorough Base. 



103 



STo. 336. The figures §, or any other figure of the eommon ehord, ]Vo. 337. In this lesson make the change from the common chord to 
indicate the common chord — just what would be indicated if no figures the chord of the seventh, in the last chord but one, with as little movement 
were printed. Sometimes used to prevent mistakes. as possible, 



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STo. 338. Notice that you have here two chords to one treble note. Mo. 33®. The chord of the seventh always calls for something more. 



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]S"o, 330. To make the changes where the figures 87 oecur, eighth notes must be used. 



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STo. 331. You are here to play the chord with each base note, according to the group of figures — the highest figure of course indicating the 
position — selecting the octave in whieh voices will most easily sing. It is readily seen that when the treble or highest part is printed with the bnse, 
figures are needed only to indicate the chords, as the treble shows the positions : therefore one or two figures of the common ehord, or the absence of 
them, may indicate the common ehord, and simply "7" the ehord of the seventh. If the chords are merely to accompany voices, it is not neeessary even 
where a base alone is printed, to indicate the exact position of each chord, and the usual mode of few or no figures may be adopted. 



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STo. 333. Chords in the left hand, arpeggio and scale forms in the right. Accent the first note of the legato groups 





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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Sixth Series. 



]Vo. 333. After practicing this lesson where it is written, transpose into the key of Gr. Vary the expression. 




STo. 33 1. Transpose this into the key of F. The voice may join in all these lessons, with syllables or vowel sounds. 




STo. 335, Transpose into D. Sometimes marcato. 



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'No. 337. Transpose into A. Piano and forte. 



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105 



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N"©. 340. These exerci9.es should he so learned that you can play them without looking at the notes. See that the hands are quiet and graceful. 




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WO» 341. ^y ^hc continued practice of these exercises you will acquire a beauty and ease of execution that you can get in no other way. 



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TSTo. 342. You pereeive that there is hut one measure here of the descending exereise. See if you ean play the whole without the notes. 







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Fifth Time through the Keys. Chromatic Scale. 



Mo. 343. Suspensions. r 

You know that a chord may have tones played or sung with it that do not belong to it, and that all sueh tones we have heretofore called " passing 
notes." Now when these " passing notes" are somewhat dwelt upon and accented, they form what are called " Suspensions;" probably beeause they 
suspend, as it were, for an instant the effect of the true chord. This suspense is enjoyed by musical people after they have made a certain degree of 
attainment. Play the base alone first — naming the chords — then tell which tone of the first chord is suspended or delayed — and by what ? Then the 
next, and so on all through. 




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No. 344. Chromatic Scale. Diatonic Scale. Accidentals. 

After learning to play this scale correctly, sing it with vowel sounds as well as syllables. Try it also commencing with other tones than C. 



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subdoininant chords. Point to where both chromatic and diatonic tones form the one, and where they form the other. In which suspension is the 
interval a half-step ? In which a step ? Which do you like best 1 




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Fifth time through the Keys. Chromatic Scale. 



107 



STo. 34G. Sinee there is but one kind of interval in the ehromatie seale, there ean be really but ono ehromatie seale — it therefore makes no 
difference at what piteh you begin it, or in what key you play or sing it, or with what ehords you aeeompany it. The only difference is in the repre- 
sentation or notation, and sometimes in the plaee of aeeenting. You pereeive that the ehromatie tones here, with a single exception, are passing notes, 
and should be played with a eertain degree of quiekness to be agreeable. Name the ehords that aeeompany. 




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lVo. 34:7* Natural. You observe that the seeond finger is mostly used to strike the blaek keys. 




KTo. 348. Commencing on the dominant You will find the thnmb and seeond finger the principal aetors in this performance. 



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No. 3ol. When you diseover a passage in any key to be a part of the ehromatie seale, there is no diflieulty in knowing what notes to strike. 



108 



Fifth Time through the Keys. Chromatic Scale. 



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Sixth time through the Keys. Inversions of the Common Chord, 



109 



No. 359. Inversions of the Common Chord (Tonic). 

Before playing this lesson, play the common chord of C, with three for the base note, instead of one, then again with five for the base. Observe 
thnt G, E and G make the common chord of G in whatever order they are taken. Name the inversions as you play. Which hand do positions refer 
to? Which hand or part, inversions? How many positions has the common chord? How many inversions? You observe that when the base is one 
the chord is not inverted. It is then said to be direct. You observe that the two inversions of the common chord may take place with either of these 
positions. It is very important that you practice this transposition first by fifths, and then by fourths, until you can play the lesson readily, smoothly 
and perfectly in any key. It is written out in G, to help you in the first step, which is usually the hardest. If you cannot do this work, it will be 
because you have not taken the previous steps well, and you must go back and take them again, if you wish to be a really intelligent and appreciative 
performer and listener. Eemember that your mind must work as well as your fingers, if you would grow healthfully in all your musical powers. 



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Wirst Transposition. 

Your teacher and the author of this book wish to make you equally familiar with all the keys. Will you help us ? 

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No. 301. Inversions of the Common Chord (Dominant and Tonic). 

Before playing this lesson, play the different positions of the chord of G, first with three (B) for the base note, then with five (D), naming both 
inversions and positions as you play. While practicing the lesson, name as follows : " Common chord of G direct, common chord of G direct, common 
chord of G first inversion, G second inversion, G first, G direct," &c. Accustom yourself, also, to naming the chords in this way : " Tonic direct, 
Dominant direct, Dominant first inversion, Dominant second/' &c. When not naming the chords, it is very important that you should acquire the 
habit of thinking what harmony you are in. Do not be discouraged if at first the transposition is difficult. 




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110 



Sixth time through the Keys. Extended Scales and Arpeggios. 



First Transposition. 

After playing this lesson in all the keys, it will be an excellent plan to give it an arpeggio form and transpose again. 



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No. 363. Inversions of the Common Chord, (Subdominant, Dominant and Tonic.) 

Before playing this lesson, play the different inversions of the eommon chord of F in all its positions. This will be more difficult to transpose, but 
should by all means be done, naming the ehords as you play. Transpose into all the keys. 




first Transposition. 

Play this also in arpeggio forms, if you ean. We are very desirous that you should understand as well as exeeute. 



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NO. 363. Kemember that the lowest note of a ehord is its base, and by that you ascertain whether the ehord is direet or inverted, and that the 
highest note, whieh is the treble, determines its position. Here, the ehord is mostly in the base and played with the left hand, but that makes no differ- 
ence as the' tones of a ehord will produee that chord when heard together, no matter where they are, or whieh is highest and whieh lowest — only the 
highest determines with regard to position and the lowest to inversion. How many different tones has the eommon ehord ? Then how many different 
tones ean be highest ? (Remember that in harmony tones having the same name are not regarded as different tones. So in the eommon ehord 
of C C may be highest, making the first position, then E making the seeond, then G the third ; but C an oetave above the first would be regarded as 
repeating the first position.) How many different tones can be lowest ? As the same number o"f tones ean be lowest as highest, why are there three 
positions and but two inversions ? 



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Flay this base with the upper part of the above lesson after having learned it with the base set to it. 



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Then try this. You perceive that the 'same harmony is used in both of these bases, but that different effeets are produeed by breaking up the 
ehords into arpeggio groups. 



Sixth Time through the Keys. Inversions of the Common Chord. 



Ill 



]Vo. 3C4. Before commencing each lesson, remember that only three chords No. 360. Think what they are in the key before you — it will 
are used — tonie, dominant and subdominant. aid you in recognising and naming the inversions. 



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first inversion of the common chord occurs in the first, or aeecnted part of decided by that which is ONE of the chord, and not always by the base, 
the measure, it is common to omit the third in the other part of the chord. which may be one three or five. 



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Wo. 373. After learning the lesson, you may sing with the playing. Wo. 3741. If- you sing, use syllables or vowel sounds. 



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]Vo. 380. Avoid doubling the third in the eommon chord. 



Wo. 383. One of a chord may be four or five of the scale. 



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112 



Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Seventh Series. 



After these scales are learned, in the order of their numbers, repeat each one as you practice it .daily, sis times at least, varying the expression 
each time. Observe the same plan with regard to the arpeggios. Never play so fast as to make a false note, or in any way so as to mar the neatness 
and elegance of the performance. It is an excellent plan to practice your stated time by the watch or clock, and never to fail in punctuality or 
-faithfulness. 






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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Seventh Series. 



113 



Now is the time to give the finishing eorreetions to any faults that may remain in your positions and movements. These seales should by all means 
be learned by heart, with the exact fingering belonging to eaeh ; for many important lessons follow that will take for granted this ability on your part, 
and that ean hardly be learned satisfactorily without it. Endeavor to know one seale or key just as well as another — be at home in all. 

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114 



Vocal Exercises for Daily Practice— Second Series. 



TVo. 55 HO- Besides observing the directions with regard to management of the breath and articulation already given, remember that the most im- 




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KT©. 304:. If jou can sing some of these lessons in two, three or four keys, it will add materially to your improvement. Use syllables in singing, 



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Vocal Exercises for Daily Practice — Second Series. 



115 



portant thing about these exercises is their transposition and practice in those keys which will bring them within the compass of your voice. 




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stone, or stairway to the next. If you can not sing the exercise in this key, transpose it to another. 






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Exercises for Crossing Hands. 



]S"0. 391?. In this lesson the right hand plays the accompaniment, and the left hand crosses over. 

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Seventh time through the Keys. Inversions of the Chord of the Seventh. 



117 



Wo. 401. Before playing this lesson, play the chord of the seventh of Gr direct, then with three for the base, then with five, and finally with 
seven; these will be inversions of the chord of the seventh. It is very common to omit three in the right hand when you have it in the base, and so 
of five, and invariably so of seven. You perceive that the chord of the seventh is not a good chord to stop on — it seems unquiet, and, as it were, wants 
to find a resting place. The tonic chord will always be that resting place, and the going of the chord of the seventh to its resting place is called its 
resolution. Although the chord of the seventh, either direct or inverted, generally goes to the tonic chord, the resolution is sometimes to other chords, 
as will be seen. You perceive that there arc three inversions of the chord of the seventh, and you probably sec that the reason is that there are four 
different tones in it, while there are but three in the common chord. You will observe that the third inversion of the chord of the seventh always 
resolves to the first inversion of the common chord on the tonic. It is so important that these chords be equally familiar to you in all the keys that we 
ask again that you will not fail to do this work of transposition most thoroughly, naming (especially at first) every chord as you play. It will aid you 
if you will play the chord of the seventh belonging to each key, in all its forms, before making the transposition. 




Mo. 402. The same, with another position. To be transposed into all the keys. 



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No. 404. The same, in arpeggio forms. It will be difficult to transpose this, but if you can play it in two or three other keys it will be an excel- 
lent plan. Try F, D, and Bb. 



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Mo. 405. The same harmonics in another arpeggio form. If you ean transpose this lesson, play it also in Gr, A, and Efcr. 




Mo. 400. Name the chords and their inversions first, and while playing do not allow one to pass without thinking what it is. 



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Seventh time through the Keys. Arpeggios of the Chord of the Seventh. 



Wo. 408. How many inversions has the common chord ? How many the chord of the seventh ? What is the base in the third inversion ? Al- 
ways commence your practice so slow that you can play without hesitation or a mistake. Continue to do so, and your lessons will come to be fast enough 
themselves — never hurry. These directions apply especially to the arpeggios and other exercises for daily practice, which please to learn earefully, in 
the order of their numbers. You will find the exercises belonging to this page on page 120. 



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Wo. 410. What is the base in the second inversion ? What in the first ? What is the base when the chord is direct ? 




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Wo. 434. To what inversion of the common chord does the third inversion of the seventh always resolve ? 



Seventh Time through the Keys. Inversions of the Chord of the Seventh. 



119 



]Vo. 'f 3G. Eaeh inversion you pereeive has its own peeuliar sound or effeet. Learn to reeognise it as soon as possible 



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N©. 428. It is important that you should know these ehords when you hear them, as well as when you see their notation. 

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No. 433. The Chord of the Ninth. 

Where is the ehord of the ninth always found, on tonie, dominant or subdominant? Of what tones is it eomposed ? With what ehord is it 
intimately eonneeted ? How do you like it ? You may perhaps remember that we have really used this ehord before, but have ealled the ninth a 
passing note, or a suspension. Remember that the effeet of the sharp in the tenth measure continues through the next. To what key do you 
modulate there ? 

There should be sueh thoroughness and solidity in your progress, that you ean at any time turn baek and exeeute well any previous lesson or pieee. 
Observe the following two things with regard to them, viz : a pieee played or sung straight along, without expression, is like a marble statue, having a 
eertain kind of beauty, but after all cold and dead ; while a pieee played or sung with true feeling or expression is like the beautiful form which has 
warmth and life. The power of feeling and expressing musie is a gift bestowed in different degrees, but all may cultivate it. 



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120 



Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice—Eighth Series. 



Learn these arpeggios in the order of their numbers. After all are learned, let your daily praetiee of them begin at the last one and play to the 
first. You will pereeive that the dominant seventh makes the transposition by fourths more agreeable than the other. 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Ninth Series. 



121 



Play these exercises in all the keys — sometimes forte, sometimes piano, sometimes crescendo, sometimes diminuendo, sometimes legato, sometimes 
staccato ; but never Hurriedly. 

STo. Utlt. Attend carefully to such reviewing as your teacher nssigns to you. 



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Wo. 430. Let nothing prevent your practicing all the exercises on this page, in all the keys, until they arc your own — that is, perfectly learned. 




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122 



Eighth time through the Keys, Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



Wo. 439, Accidentals xised in representing a Key. 

This lesson, you perceive, is just as much in the key of G- as though the snarp had been put at the beginning in the usual way. Notice that the 
sharp makes the line or space on which it occurs stand for a tone a half step higher than it otherwise would, but that this effect only continues through 
the measure. It is easily seen that changing the signification of the line or space once for all, as is done when the sharp is used as a signature, saves 
time and trouble. 



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Wo. 440. You see that sharps and flats when used as accidentals have not so much power as when used as signatures, or rather their power does 
not extend so far. In what key is this lesson ? Name the chords. 



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Wo. 441. Notice that the first note in the seventh measure is F sharp, although no sharp is placed immediately before it. The effect of an acci- 
dental continues from one measure to the next, if the last note of the one and the first note of the next are on the line or space that is affected. In 
what key is this lesson ? 



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Wo. 443. Modulation. 

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also see that for the short time we are out of the key of C, it is not worth while to change the signature, but is better to represent the key of Gr by acci- 
dentals. Name the chords by letter, as, " common chord of C direct, common chord of C first inversion/' &c. ; and also by tonic, dominant and subdomi- 
nant, as, " tonic direct, tonic first inversion," &c. In the seventh measure the first and second chord arc dominant in the key of C, and the third and fourth 
are dominant in the key of Gr. The only chord in the eighth measure is tonic in Gr, and the first and second chords in the next measure dominant in 
C, &c. What is tonic in Gr ? What is dominant in C ? What is subdominant in Gr ? What is tonic in C ? Observe that the accidentals here are 
not passing notes, but regular tones in the chords. 



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Modulations. Chords, Scales, and Arpeggios, in the Minor Keys. 



123 



**°- 44S - The Happy Group. 

You perceive that these chroinatie tones are passing notes only, and do not cause modulation. Give finish and completeness to your work. 



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No. 444. Modulation by the Flat Seventh. 

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key is it then dominant? What other modulation takes place? What tones are used that do not cause a modulation ? Sing syllables first. 



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124 



Eighth time through the Keys. Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



In order to give the imagination more freedom, pieees are eom posed for the voiee, without icords, ealled Solfeggios. The best singers regard the 
praetice of solfeggios important not only for the objeet mentioned above, but for improvement in the management of the breath, (and consequently in 
phrasing,) and in execution : while the effort to express joy, gaiety, cheerfulness, courage, &c, as well as the more plaintive and sad emotions by their 
means, is of the greatest importance in developing the power to umke use of different qualities of tone. As there are no words in solfeggios to give 
definiteness to the expression, as far as it relates to emotion and consequent quality of tone, it is obvious that sueh an interpretation of the musie may 
be given as will be in aeeordanee with its character. It will be found in all solfeggios that several interpretations can be given with almost equal pro- 
priety, and in some cases emotions quite opposite may in turn be expressed without violenee to the musie* 

No. 445. SOLPEGG-IO OITE. 

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you sing and play. Observe that it is not worth while to change the syllables to the key of G in the first modulation, beeause it is so short 



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125 



What key is made by the tones C, D, E, F, G-, A and B ? What key by the tones C, I), E, F#, G-, A and B ? What key is this piece said to be 
in ? What other key oceurs in it ? What is the process of going to the key of G here called ? — and what is the process of going baek to the key of 
C ealled ? Endeavor to see what chords the arpeggio groups are made of. If you have any difficulty iu doing this, condense by striking all at onee. 

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BTo. 4L4LT, Transpose this Waltz into the keys of G-, D, A, F, Bfj, and Efe. You observe that you go at once from the tonic of the key you are in 
to the dominant of the key to which you modulate. 

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Eighth time through the Keys. Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



No. 448. SOLFEGGIO TWO-* 

This solfeggio may be transposed to a lower or higher key, to suit your voice, if necessary. It would he an excellent plan to try it in some other 
key; D, for example. Take breath only at the rests. Be careful to make the musical meaning distinct and clear by right phrasing, and^ the whole 
performance effective by means of such things of style as you have practiced. Sustain the long notes generally with the swelling and diminishing tone. 

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THE HAPPY RETURN. — (Joyfulness.) 



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When from a - far we have come. 
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1. How bounds the heart at the sweet words of wel- eome, 

2. Friends that have min - gled their pray'rs with ea - ress - ing, 

3. This was the star that e - elipsed proud am - hi - tion, 



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Bring -ing us home once a - gain... 
Pie - tures of wel - eome at home. 



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JE®*In the preceding song, give right quality of tone, sufficient force in the enunciation of the eonsonant elements to give earnestness to the 
words, and be eareful of the management of the breath. Is there an.aeeidental there that is a passing note ? Do you see, or rather hear, that the 
ehord of the ninth is formed in three places in this song by the aeeompaniment and melody taken together ? Could you transpose it a little higher or 
a little lower, if the present pitch does not suit your voiee ? It will be an excellent plan to try it in some other key. 



128 



Eighth time through the Keys, Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



]$To. 450. When a chromatic tone or accidental is dwelt upon a certain time, its own harmony must be given with it to make it sound well, and so 
a modulation takes pkee to another key. Where docs such a modulation take place in this lesson ? Observe that the first inversion of the chord of 
the seventh of D takes place in the fourth measure. 




No. 451. Tonic and Dominant Chords in the key of A Minor. Major and Minor Thirds. 

Before playing this lesson, play major and minor thirds in various parts of the piano. Be able to tell them by the ear as well as their signs by the 
eye. You observe that the dominant here is a major chord, made so, by introducing Gr sharp whenever the dominant occurs. Play the dominant chord 
using Gr instead of Gr sharp, and see how you like it. Name the chords and their positions, thus : " Common chord of A minor, first position • same ) 
common chord of E major, second position, &c. You can sing while you play — either the upper parts or the base. Syllables apply as in the key of 
C, la to A, do to C, &c. 



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No. 453. Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant in the key of A Minor. 

You perceive that the dominant and subdominant in the minor are reckoned from the key note, just as they are in the major. The dominant a 
fifth, and the subdominant a fourth. You probably perceive that the signature of this key is also the signature of C major. This is why the syllables 
apply the same. Is the subdominant a major or a minor chord ? Which interval of the common chord decides whether it is major or minor ? When 
the third is major, what kind of chord is it? When the third is minor, what? 



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No. 453. Chord of the Seventh, in the Minor. 

You perceive that the chord of the seventh may occur in the dominant of the minor as it does in the major. The thought may occur to 
you, " Why is not this sharp which occurs so often, put into the signature, and thus its use as an accidental be avoided ?" Excellent reasons for this 
will appear by and by. As Gr sharp here is for a good reason represented as an accidental, although really a tone of the key, the syllable is applied as 
to an accidental. 




No. 454. Inversions of Chords in the Minor. (Learn Ho. 455 next, page 148.) 

You observe that inversions occur in the minor chord as in major. The chord of the seventh being always a dominant chord, consequently always 
major docs not differ from what you have been playing. It is observed that minor music is not liked at first by most learners, but it is equally true that 
it is liked more and more as progress is made in the knowledge and consequent appreciation of music. 




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129 



]\To. 4L5G. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in Gr Major. Forzando. 

Name the chords and their inversions. Notiee how the forzando and the grouping by the legato mark break up the natural aceent of the measure. 

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The Sunbeams of the !M!orning. 



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Eighth time through the Keys, Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



Mo. 458. SOLFEGGIO THREE. 

What emotion will this solfeggio best express — cheerfulness, joy, or the more somber, such as sadness, sorrow, &c? What position and form do 
the pharynx and other organs of the voice take for the somber emotions ? What for the brighter and more joyful ? Kemember' that whatever be the 
expression, there must be a constant undulation of the voice : cres., dim., &c. 

If you need to sing higher or lower than these solfeggios go, it is expected that you will transpose to meet the necessity. 

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THE GUARDIAN. — (Plaintiveness.) 



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1. Art thou watch - ing o - ver mc, my Moth - er, From thy home a- mong the blest? Dost thou 

2. Art thou watch - ing o - ver me, my Moth - er, In the cares and toils of life? Is it 

3. Will thy watch be o - ver me, my Moth - er, When the day of life is o'er? Can I 

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guide my way - ward footsteps, Mother, 
thy sweet voiee with-in me, Mother, 
put my hand in thine, my Mother, 



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When I reach the 



peace and rest ? 

mid the strife ? 

mys - tic shore ? 



Is it thy sweet smile that sometimes 
When my self - ish love to sin al - 
Wilt thou guide me to the pleasant 




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bright - ens All the dark and drear - y road \ 

lures me, And I sink be - neath its spell. 

wa - ters In the fields of liv - ing green 



Is it thy dear love that draws me up - ward 
Dost thou eome with heav'nly pow'r to save me, 
Can I change these soil'd and tatter'd gar - ments 



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white and clean ? 




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No, 4GO. Tonic, Dominant and. S\ibdominant Chords in tlie key of E minor. 

You improve in appreciation only by finishing and perfecting every thing you perform to the utmost, aeeording to the taste and knowledge you have. 

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132 



Eighth time through the Keys, Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



No. 462. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in D major. 

Name the chords and their inversions. If your hand is too small to reach all the notes of the most extended chords, omit the lower one. Observe 
earefully the marks of expression. Do all the previous lessons, songs and pieces, belong to you ? Have you forgotten, or thrown them away ? 



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STo. 4G3. The Holiday Party. 

Nobody likes vanity and self-eoneeit. Even vain and eoneeited people dislike it in others. If you wish your musieal performances to produee 
good results, let them be governed by modesty, obligingness and unselfishness — not the appearance of these qualities merely, but the reality of them. 

After playing the Da Capo after the seeond seetion, play the third section whieh is in the key of Gr, then Da Capo to end the pieee. fine. 



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133 



No. 464. SOLFEGGIO POUR. 

Remember to begin the phrases without expending much breath, and do not continue for any length of time with the same strength of tone : 
especially let the long tones be cres. or dim., or both. It will be an excellent plan sometimes to make use of syllables. Name the chords. 
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Mo. 465. Inversions of the Tonic, Dominant and. Snbdominant Chords in B Minor. 

How would the syllables apply here in singing ? What is five in this scale ? What is five in this tonic chord ? What is five in the dominant? 
Tn the subdominant? It is hoped that you understand, as well as perform correctly, everything thus far. What kinds of thirds occur here ? 



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Eighth time through the Keys. Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



]\To. 4C7. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in A major. 

You observe that you have short scale forms sometimes in the base, when you have chords in the right hand. Observe which of these base notes 
are the proper bases of the chords, and which are passing notes. 




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JVo. 4C8. The Old Guard. 

Remember that the difficulty of a piece is much increased when you perform it to others. Play only what you are absolutely sure of. Name 
chords, modulations, suspensions and passing notes. 

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135 



Wo. 4G9. THE OJVITATIOST T® THE DASTCE. — (Gaiety.) 

In this piece the principal melody is for the instrument, and the pieee will consequently tax your power of doing two things at once. Make the 
fingers and voice independent of each other as far as may be necessary. If sung by a male voice, the upper part should be taken. 
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O " come, love, with me Where the soft sun-beams glanec, And join the gay group In "the song and the 



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Each move-men t of grace Brings de-light to the eye, Each strain of the song Is a true pleasure 



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\ In each thought and ac - tion Let true friendship guide, That e'en in our glad - ness Good will may pre- 

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Eighth time through the Keys, Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



R7o. 472. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and. SnbcLominant Chords in E major. 
Keep faithfully, for the present, to the habit of naming ehords and inversions, passing notes, suspensions, &e. 

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Wo. 473. The Willow by the Hiver. 

Remember that /here does not indieate so great a degree of strength as it would in a maestoso movement. 



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137 



Wo. 474. SOLFEGGIO FIYE- 

Be eareful in all these solfeggios to produce sueh a quality of tone, and consequently to give sueh an emotional expression, as. the structure of the 
musie will properly admit. Be careful also to make the musieal meaning distinet and elear by right phrasing, and the whole performance effective by 
the right use of the various things of style and expression. Do you think what the harmony is as you play and sing? 



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Eighth time through the Keys, Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



No. 477. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant chords in B major 



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No. 479. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in GJ minor. 

Observe that the double sharp is similar to the character indicating the thumb. Do not mistake one for the other. 




No. 481. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in F# major. 



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No. 485. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Snbdominant Chords in Gfe Major. 






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Eighth time through the Keys. Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



KTo. 493. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant chords in Afe major. 

Observe that the time of this is slow. Name the chords. Give the ending as marked. Where do passing notes commence in the base ? 





]Vo. 494. Moonlight on tlie rippling "Water. 

If G flat were added to this signature, what major key would be indicated ? Would putting a flat before every Gr produce the same effect ? 
Then what key is the third section of this piece in ? It must be a very simple piece of music that will not give pleasure if well performed. In playing 
for your friends you will do well to be governed by this principle. Committing to memory such pieees as you can best perform is an excellent plan. 

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Modulations. Chords, Scales and Arpeggios in the Minor Keys. 



141 



No. 495. ADAL.IDA. — (Sorrow.) 

Do not exaggerate those movements of the body whieh properly aeeompany the expression of emotion, — on the other hand do not eramp yourself 
with too mueh restraint, — naturalness and freedom are essential to an effective musieal performance. 

CON ESPRESSIONE. 




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1 

D. c. 1. 'Neath the wil - low she is sleep - ing, And the flow - ers bloom the new mound o'er, 

2. 'Neath the wil - low she is sleep - ing, And my wea - ry heart is lone and sad, 

3. 'Neath the wil - low she is sleep - ing, But I'll wake my life - work to ful - fil, 



Ad - a - li - da ! Ad -_a 
Ad - a - li - da ! Ad - a 
Ad - a - li - da ! Ad - a 




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li - da ! We shall see thy form on earth no more, 
li - da ! What is left on earth to make me glad, 
li - da ! Can thy spir- it guard and guide me still ? 



Oh ! her voiee made sweet - est mu - sic, As its 
Oh ! her foot - steps in my path - way, Made the 
Is thy home now with the an - gels, Are they 




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And her eye beamed joy and brightness, On the faithful heart she loved so well. Ah. 
And her pure love with me ev - er Gave new strength to keep more near the right. Ah. 
Do they help us in our strug-gles With the e - vils that be -set us here? Ah. 



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* These triplets will hardly be sung in exact time because of the difficulty of making a group of three go with a group of two. They may be made something 
like the corresponding groups in the prelude. 



No. 490. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant chords in F minor. 

Observe that this is very slow. Grive expression as marked, especially the forzando. 




142 



Eighth time through the Keys! Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



]Vo. 498. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in Efe major. 

Do not take the time too fast. Remember that maestoso ineludes a rather mareato style of performance in the fortissimo passages. 



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No. 499 

LEGGIERO. 



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Learn these pieees and songs so thoroughly that you ean play them at any time, and in any plaee. If you ean perform them without the notes, so 
much the better. When asked to play for others, do not hesitate and wait to be eoaxed, but pleasantly and promptly eomply. Seleet a pieee that you 



Modulations. Chords, Scales and Arpeggios in the Minor Keys. 



143 



are sure of even if it be one of your older and simpler lessons; for they, if well performed, will be pleasing — while the most beautiful piece, if bungled, 
is only listened to out of politeness, and is painful rather than agreeable. Many injudicious persons will perhaps praise you when you have played for 
theni, and will even do so when you have played very poorly. Do not be misled by such praise, but have a higher motive than a desire for it. 



]Vo. 500. SOLFEGGIO SIX!. 

You perceive that this solfeggio is best adapted to express boldness or courage. Let the quality of tone "correspond to this emotion. It will be a 
good plan to sing it a part of the time with syllables. If it does not accommodate the pitch of your voice, can you transpose it? 

MODERATO. 



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Apply syllables as if the tones were in E^ major. Sing the second part. Try also the third — and the base. 

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Eighth time through the Keys. Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



No. 503. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Stibdominant chords in Bk major. 

In passing from the sixth to the seventh measure, let the thumb of the right hand slide from the blaok to the white key without being raised. 
Remember that andantino includes a graceful effect. The second section of this piece is a little bolder, still it should all be played legato. 



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No. 504. Tlie Butterfly among the Flowers. 

You see that instead of modulating by the sharp fourth in this lesson, we go back to the key-of E flat for one change, and to save the trouble of 
writing so many accidentals, the signature of this key is used. Although the time is as here indicated by the metronome mark, the piece may be a 
little faster if it can be played with case and elegance. Supply the marks of expression according to your own taste. 

£=132. THIRTY-SECOND NOTES. 




Xo. 505. 

AGITATO. 



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Modulations. Chords, Scales and Arpeggios in the Minor Keys. 



THE DYOT« SOLDIER.— (AnguiNh and Joy.) 



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1. The fear - ful night is elos - ing round me, On the blood - y field I lie ; Is this 

2. What light is this so strange - ly gleam - ing ? Ah ! I see the dear old home ; Hark ! I 

3. A - gain that light so strange is gleam -ing; Ah! 'tis far more glo - rious now, And its 



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Fa - ther ! Moth - er ! 0, the 
Fa - ther ! Moth - er ! 0, the 
Fa - ther ! Moth - er ! I am 



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But a - las, no help ean reaeh me, Dear ones, 

But a - las, the vi - sion's van - ished, And I'm 

And I know that they will bear me Up - ward 



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Eighth time through the Keys. Pieces, Solfeggios, Songs and Exercises. 



No. 508. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in F major. 

Name chords and inversions as before. Think of the harmony as you play. Adhere to right positions and movements. 



2d time. 





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No. 509. [Prcmdly floats the Banner. 

Name the chords and the inversions. Think of the harmony while you play. Give the right expression and learn perfectly. 

J=132. MAESTOSO. 






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Modulations. Chords, Scales and Arpeggios in the Minor Keys. 



147 



]Vo. 510. SOLPEG-G-IO SE^rElST- 

This solfeggio is too high for most voices, and to be useful must often be transposed. If the arpeggios in the right hand are too low when 
transposed, there will be no objection to playing them in different positions. Is your voice becoming purer, more uniform and symmetrical ? Are you 
improving in regard to blending registers, sustaining tones, and economising the breath ? Are your pronunciation and enunciation good, and your 
execution neat and distinet? And last, but not least, can you give the quality of tone corresponding to the emotion that you wish to express? 



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No. 511. Inversions of Tonic, Dominant and Subdominant Chords in D minor. 




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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Tenth Series. 



No. 455. Scale and Arpeggio in A minor. 

What kind of minor scale is represented first ? What next ? What kind of common chord does the arpeggio make ? 



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It is very important that you should become familiar with minor scales and chords in all the keys. 




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Learn these scales perfectly in the order of their numbers, then practice them daily until you can play them without notes. 



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No one can be regarded as having made high attainments in music, who does not know the minor keys nearly as well at least as the major. 



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No. 476. Scale and Arpeggio in C# minor. 

It is observed that the longer we study music, and the better we know it, the more we like the minor with its chords, scales and pieces. 







221 



No. 480. Scale and Arpeggio in Gr# minor. 

Observe that F double sharp is the same tone on the piano as Gr. Do not confound the character indicating it with the thumb mark. 

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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Tenth Series. 



149 



No. 484 3c 488. Scale and Arpeggio in D# and Eb" minor*. 

The minor seales from the signature four sharps to the signature four flats, although not so eommon as the others, should be thoroughly learned 







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Let us remind you of the importance of learning these seales by heart. Whieh is harmonic, and whieh is melodie ? 



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No. 497. Scale and Arpeggio in F minor 

These like the major seales should have variety of expression, sometimes p, sometimes f, sometimes cres., and sometimes dim. 






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N®. 503. Scale and Arpeggio in C minor. 

It will be an excellent plan sometimes to join with your voiee in sueh of these seales as arc within your compass. 

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No. 507. Scale and Arpeggio in G- minor. 

It is hoped that you will not find the praetiee of these minor seales so difficult as to tire you of them before they are learned. 



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No. 512. Scale and Arpeggio in T> minor. 

Cultivate a taste for minor musie, it is indispensable to high attainments in the art. 



150 



Ninth time through the Keys. Thorough Base— Second Series. 



]Vo. 513. Yon will remember that the e indicates the first inversion, and \ the second inversion of the common chord ; also, that \ indicates the 
first, \ the second, and £ the third inversions of the chord of the seventh. You will also keep in mind that % or the absence of figures indicate the 
common chord direct; also, that a sharp, flat, or natural alone, or over or under a figure, always refers to the third. In naming these chords 
describe them quite fully, as, tonic common chord direct, tonic common chord first inversion, &c. When you come to the chord of D in the fourth measure, 
say " dominant in G common chord," the next will be tonic in Gr, but the next being a chord of the seventh will of course be a dominant chord, and by 
it you return to the key of C. 



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]Vo. 514. Before reminding you of what your teacher tells you about $\ it will be well to give you a tabular view of the full figuring of these 

chords, together with their abbreviations. 

Common chord direct full figuring J5, abbreviation, either figure, or no figures. 

Common chord first inversion §, abbreviation 6. 

e 
Common chord second inversion g, abbreviation J. 

* 
Chord of the seventh direct £, abbreviation 7. 



Chord' of the seventh first inversion Jj, abbreviation J. 

. 3 , 

Chord of the seventh second inversion J, abbreviation £. 

3 

Chord of the seventh third inversion f, abbreviation \. 

2 . 
Chord of the ninth direct ?, abbreviation f. 



Now if each base note were fully figured, you could play just as correctly by reckoning the intervals from the base note according to the figures, — for 
example where §, is written, a third, fifth and eighth will give you the common chord direct, so when I is written, a sixth, third and eighth will give 
you the first inversion of the common chord, but, remember that in this way of finding out chords you reckon from the written base note, which you 
know is not always one, as we have been regarding the chords. If therefore you reckon this *f from the base note you will find you have the second 
inversion of the chord of -the seventh of E, the sharp sixth from the base note being the major third in the dominant seventh chord of this key. It 
may be well, also, to remind you that chords are often named from their figuring. The first inversion of the common chord being called the chord of 
the sixth, the second inversion the chord of six four, &c. 



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]Vo. 515. Notice that the second chord in the second measure is dominant in the key of D major, and that the chords in the fifth measure are 
dominant chords in E minor, — when you name these latter say "dominant in the relative minor." Can you tell at what chord you are fairly back 
into G major ? The natural before the seventh indicates the dominant seventh in C, and so you go out of the key again. What would a seventh from 
G be in this key ? Would F sharp in the chord of the seventh of G be pleasant ? You see then why the natural is placed before the seven here. You 
will probably have no difficulty in discovering that the next chord is a suspension of the common chord of C, being indicated by § and followed by g 



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No. 510. Remember that the chord of the ninth is formed by adding a ninth to the chord of the seventh, meaning of course a ninth from the 
base note. At the third measure of this brace, say, " tonic in the relative minor," &c. Persist in making yourself thoroughly familiar with all the chords, 
in all the keys. 



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Ninth time through the Keys. Thorough Base—Second Series. 



151 



STo. 517. Keniember that dashes are substitutes for previous figures or accidentals, and that single figures, like the last (87) mean that only one 
part should move — that the other tones should be held while the 8th and 7th are given. 



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]Vo. #510. What does a natural under the base note signify ? What does a natural before the 6 signify ? What chord is | the full figuring of? You 
perceive that the change from the major to the minor, and vice versa, in the same lesson, is easily made. 



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JVo. 520. What tone is a seventh from E flat according to this signature ? What tones are neeessary to make the chord of the seventh of E 
flat (the dominant seventh in the key of A flat) ? You perceive by this why the flat is placed before the 7 here in the last measure but one. 

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RT©. 221. You observe that when a base note is not figured, and yet cannot be the base of the common chord, it must be a passing note. 



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152 



Vocal Exercises for daily practice— Third Series. 



]%To. 523. Be careful to sing these exercises in the key best adapted to the compass of your voice. Use syllables and vowel sounds 



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STo. 524. Take breath but once in each lesson. Low voices will sing these exercises well in Gr, A flat, A, and B flat. 



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No. 535. If you cannot take the tones easily in this way, practice on a single sound. . 




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Instrumental Exercises for Daily -Practice—Eleventh Series. 



153 



STo. 53G. Do not fail in eaeh of these lessons to give variety to them by means of p.,/., eres., dim, &e. 





KTo. *»37. It will be an excellent plan to transpose eaeh of these lessons into at least one other key. 




No. 538. 



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]\To. 540. You see that you are left to finish this exercise without aid from the book. It will be a good plan also to practice all these lessons 
continuing them an octave or two higher and lower than they are here written. 

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154 



Second time through the Minor Keys. Daily Exercises— Twelfth Series. 



STo. 541. Practice also the melodic minor scale, and make still another by ascending like the harmonic and descending like the melodic. 



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155 



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Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



No- 553. JJouble Dotted Notes. 



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No. 554. ^TUDES PROG-RESSIVES.—The Woodland Ramble. 

Name the chords of which these arpeggios arc formed. Also the modulations that take place. Give the leggiero and other expression as perfectly 
as possible. Look over again from page 36 to page 69, and seo what chords those lessons are composed of. 
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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios, and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 157 
Wo. 555. SOLFEGGIO BIGHT. 

Name first the chords with their inversions of which the accompaniment is made, then the modulations that take place in the piece. Try first a 
plaintive and rather gentle expression — then one of more courage and boldness. In the latter you will have to disregard in some places the marks of 
expression. It is presumed that you can transpose this if it is not adapted to your voice in this key. 




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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practise— Thirteenth Series, 



No. 550. Various Arpeggios of the Common Chord. 

Play the following lessons according to this model, which is No. 556 printed in full, that is, play with both hands, making a part for the left hand 
an octave below the right,— the fingering for the left hand will be found under the music. Play each measure three times and then a longer tone on 
the note with which you commenced, to make the rhythmical section complete, and to end well. Make the fingers work as independently of the hand 
as possible. Accent the first tone of each group. 

(No. 556 as it is to be played.) 




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160 



Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



No. 580. ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.— Sprites of Shadow and Sunshine. 

You perceive that the movement which produces an agitated and disturbed effect in the minor is simply gay and lively in the relative major. 



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ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.---The Sighing of the Breeze. 



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161 



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No. 590 



162 



Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



Wo. 591 SOLPEGG-IO ISTHSTE- 

You are now left to select your own places for taking breath, and thus to make the phrasing. Do not disturb the meaning and good effect of the 
music by taking breath in wrong places. You will find that you do not always have time to fill the lungs full. 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice—Fifteenth Series. 



163 



No. 50£. Sequences. 

Vary the expression, — soft, loud, eres., dim., legato, and staeeato. Transpose into another key if you ean : it will be difficult. Endeavor to have 
the eontrol and mastery of every note in eaeh lesson from the begining : undertake only what you eau perform, and then commenee slow enough. 



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playing neat ? It is far better to play slow, than to have your musie eonfused, indistinct, or elumsy. 



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164 



Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Sixteenth Series. 



No. 594. Various Arpeggios of the Chord of the Seventh. 

Play eaeh measure three times with a long tone to close with, on the plan of No. 556. Play the proper tonie chord at the close of each lesson. 
These exercises will amply repay you for all the time and attention that you will give them. 

No. 595. 
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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice—Seventeenth Series. 



165 



Which way is the transposition here, by fifths or by fourths ? It is because we hope you now play well enough to sec the importance of technics 
that we give you so many to practice. 

STo. C©4. ^a e^ feSiL ^ Wo. COS. 








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166 



Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



No. 616. ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.— Sounds from the Chapel. 

Keep the melody as connected as possible and strike the accompaniment neatly. Think while you play whether you are in major or minor, also 
whether you are in tonic, dominant or subdominant. If your piano is well in tune, and more especially if it sustains or vibrates well, you should 
derive considerable pleasure from the effort to make the melody sound like a voice. There is no objection to adding your voice here sometimes, making 
use of " ah," or the syllables la, si, do, &c. 




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No. 617. ETUDES PROGRESSIVES. —Flashes on the Evening Cloud. 

This etude is characterised by delicacy rather than power. Notice the repeat of two measures. It is necessary to the correct rythmic form. 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios, and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic, 167 



Wo. 618. SOL^Eia-G-IO TZEZtsT. 

If you were to apply syllables here you would have no oeeasion to ehange their application in the little minor phrases } as they are applied to relative 
major and minor alike. Do not take hreath between the 4th and 5th measures. This style of passing from one phrase to the next should be well learned. 

ANDANTE. 



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168 



Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Eighteenth Series. 



ISO* CIO. This exercise is regarded by some of the best teachers living, as second to none in importance. Play each scale major and minor, 
accenting in the four ways here given. You will now perceive the absolute necessity of knowing all the scales and their fingering by heart, but this we 
hope is accomplished. Play the unaccented notes lightly, that the accented ones may be prominent. Adhere to the right fingering. 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Eighteenth Series. 



169 



]VO. G22. Remember that the first note of eaeh group should have a clear, prompt accent given with the right finger, and that the others should 
be rather light. -You should now know all the scales by heart, that you may transpose readily. 



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all the preceding lessons, it is believed that you will accomplish this transposing with only a moderate amount of effort. If you have not, it will be 
formidable. 




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170 



Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice—Nineteenth Series. 



Observe the directions given for fingering the arpeggios not here printed, and play them in their Order. 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios, and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 171 



IVo. G30. SOXjFEC3-C3-IO ZEUjZETVZEaT- 

Do not neglect to sing these solfeggios sometimes with the other vowel sounds, and if your pronunciation needs improving, with the syllables. 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Twentieth Series. 



IVo. 031. Do you know the fingering ? 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 173 



Mo. 637. 



ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.---Kitty by the Fireside. 



Cadenza. You pereeive that your great work just now is the praetiee of teehnies or daily exereises. These etudes and solfeggios are however 
of great importance, as they appeal to the taste and imagination. Make them perfeet. This pieee must, as you see, go quite fast when it is learned • the 
ehromatie groups should be very smoothly and elosely linked together, if you would make it a good musical picture. AVith a little aid of the imagination 
the eontented purring of this favorite of the household may here be quite pleasantly represented. 



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174 



Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.™ Sadness, Hope, Joy. 

TS"o. C38. You may substitute other expressions for those indicated here, if you can by that means make the music more descriptive of the emotions 
spoken of in the title. 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios, and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 175 



]Vo. C30. SOLPEGGIO TWELVE. 

^ Notice that after observing the first Da Capo, you play the section in C minor, and ai'tcr repeating that so as to give its second ending, you D. C. 
again to close with. Pass from the last tone of the minor section to the beginning in the D. C. without taking breath. 

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176 



Enstrumental Exercises for Daily Practice—Twenty-first Series. 



This has been well called by some authors The Grand Practice op the Scales. No technics are on the whole so important as these, especially 
if they include the various accents and other expressions. You have here the model of each key, major and minor; practice equally in all.' Not only 
should these technics form daily exercises until they are mastered, but they should be continued as long as you wish to keep yourself in the practice of 
the piano-forte. Begin slow enough to have the fingering perfect, and the touch clear and neat. Finger as in the other scales. 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 177 



No. G52. 



ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.-- Apprehension, Suspense, Certainty. 



Kemember that before you can give your imagination free play in these eludes, the mechanical part of the work of playing them must be very 
perfect. Time, fingering, accents, &c, must be so mastered that you seem to give them scarcely a thought. Into how many keys does the lesson go? 



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178 Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



ETUDES , PROGRESSIVES. ---The return of the Regiment, 

]Vo. G53. The principal mechanical difficulty here is in the wrist motion. Do not play so fast as to make this irregular or indistinct. It is hoped 
that these harmonies are now so familiar to you, that your thoughts can be given to the subject you wish to describe, and the emotion you wish to express. 
After observing the first Da Capo, omit the second section, and play the third — then D. C. to close with. 




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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Twenty-second Series. 



179 



KTo. 654-. Play this through all the keys, transposing by fourths. Tou observe that the same fingering is used in eaeh aseending group iu the 
right hand and reversing, the same in descending. So in the left. Adhere to this fingering in all the keys. 




Transpose into all the keys, major and minor. It is neeessary to know the fingering by heart. 
No. 655. 






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Play this exercise with the same fingering in G major, F major, and Play this exercise with the same fingering in A major aud E major ; 

F sharp major ; also in A minor, E minor, D minor and E flat minor. also in Gr minor, C minor and F minor. 

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180 



Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth times through the Keys. 



STo. 664. ETUDES PROGRESSIVES. —Dance of the Rustic Masqueraders. 

It is only when you can play this dtude perfectly in time and tune that you will be ready to practice to bring out or develop its musical meaning — a 
most important part of your musical education. Do not make the first three notes in the base a triplet — join them to the first note in the treble as 
though they all formed one group of four. To what key does the modulation here take place ? What is the tone of modulation. 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 181 



IVo. G65. 



ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.™ The Chase of the Chamois. 



These Etudes will be interesting to your friends and useful to yourself, only as they are thoroughly played, and their meaning fully brought out • 
many excellent pieces are pronounced uninteresting simply because they are not understood, or are not well played. 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily* Fractice—Twenty-third Series. 



]Vo. OGG. Play this sometimes even — sometimes accenting the first of each two, and sometimes cres. ascending, and dim. descending. 



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Etudes and Solfeggios. Scales, Arpeggios and other Technics, Major, Minor and Chromatic. 183 



TSo. C68. 



ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.— The Wind among the Forest Trees, 



A certain degree of velocity will be necessary here to produce the right effeet, but the commencement of the practice should be, as in all cases 
slow, distinct and perfect. While practicing this 6tude let the memory call to mind the various fitful sounds of the wind in the forest, and let the 
imagination clothe the music with a corresponding expression. Work patiently to get this left hand part perfect. 



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STo. 060, Be careful to accent the first note of each group of two, and make the second staecato. You perceive that this lesson is abbreviated. 
Can you supply the deficiency? You will do well to play it also in the key of D flat, observing the same fingering. 



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184 



New Common Chord and Chords of the Seventh, including the 



Wo. 670. Supertonic, Mediant, Submediant and Leading note. Imperfect Common Chord. 

Before playing this lesson play the common chord belonging to eaeh tone of the major scale, using no chromatic tones. Do this in every major 
scale. How many kinds of common chords have we ? What are the intervals of the major common chord ? What of the minor? What of the im- 
perfect ? What kind of a common chord is found upon the tonic in any major key? What upon the supertonic? What upon the mediant? What 
upon the subdominant? What upon the dominant? What upon the submcdiant? What upon the leading note? Transpose into all the keys and 
name the ehords here as you play, as, chord of the tonic, chord of the subdominant, chord of the supertonic, and eontinue naming them through all the 
keys. It is believed that you now have but little difficulty in transposing. If this is not so, you are earnestly advised to go over the lessons in tran- 
position again. 



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No. 671. New Chords of the Seventh. 

Before playing this lesson play the chord of the seventh on each tone of the scale, using no chromatic tones. Examine and name the intervals 
forming these chords. How many different chords of the seventh do you find ? You will find them more agreeable in the lesson than when played 

separately. 

JFirst transposition. 




No. 672. The rise of the Common Chords on the Submediant, Supertonic and Mediant. 

Do not fail here to become familiar with the new things and their names, supertonic, mediant, &e., so that when it is said, for example, that the 
mediant is rarely used, except in its first inversion, the phrase shall not seem as if it was in an unknown tongue, but familiar and clear, — a moderate 
amount of effort on your part will surely accomplish this. Your teacher will tell you how to work if the right way does not occur to you. The ehords 
of the submediant, and supertonic, of any major key, are the same as the tonie, and subdominant of its relative minor, and may be used in either way 
although it is not usual to regard them as in the minor while performing a major pieee, unless the phrase in which they occur is mostly minor. This 
cadence illustrates the most common use of the submcdiant, supertonic, and mediant chords, — -the submediant being mostly found in its direct form, 
the supertonic generally in its first inversion, though sometimes direct, while the mediant is almost never used excepting in its first inversion and in 
this particular way. It will be an excellent plan to play these lessons in various arpeggio forms like those on page 117. 




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No. 673. Use of the Common Chord on the leading note, and the Chord of the 7th on the Supertonic. 

This cadenee shows the most common use of the chord of the leading note, and the chord of the 7th, with the minor third, — the latter being the 
supertonic ehord, and both in the first inversion. These lessons should all be learned by heart, and should be played as well in one key as another. 




No. 674. Resolutions of the Chords of the Seventh. 

Play the ehord of the dominant seventh in eaeh key, and make it resolve to the submediant. This progression you will frequently find in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 



Chord of the Diminished Seventh, and the Chord of the Extended Sixth.. 



185 



Mo. 675. The Chord of the Diminished Seventh, and its Resolutions. 

Before playing this lesson, play the chord of the dominant seventh direct in the key of C, and then by a change only of the lower tone make a 
chord of the diminished seventh. Do this in every other major (or minor) key. What intervals make this chord ? Do you notice that going from one 
tone to the next, in the chord of the diminished seventh you have successively the same interval ? Play it with one hand so as to bring the tones nearer 
together, and you will perceive it with the eye, and perhaps with the ear, which is more important. Of how many half steps is this interval composed ? 
(You will find that this interval is sometimes ropresented to the eye as an augmented second, and sometimes as a minor third.) Since then there Is 
but one kind of interval in this chord (reckoning from one tone to the next,) and that interval composed of only three half steps, it follows that there 
can really be but three different chords of the diminished seventh, just as there can be but one chromatic scale, because there is but one kind of inter- 
val in it, and that composed of only one-half step,. You will notice, however, that these three chords are both written and resolved differently as they 
occur in the different keys. After playing perhaps you will notice that the second chord in this little lesson in C, the fourth in the lesson in D, the 
second in A, the fourth in B, the second in Fjf, the second (of course) in G-(2, the fourth in At>, the second in Et>, and the fourth in F, are all to the ear 
the same chord, only with different representations, and different resolutions, and in different positions. Please point out the different places of the 
other two. An excellent plan to help you in understanding and forming these chords will be to produce a succession of minor thirds from any tone, 
say C; then give them both in chord and in arpeggio form, — do the same commencing with Cft, then the same commencing with D, and you have all; 
for if you commence with EJ2, you must produce an inversion of the first, and with E, an inversion of the second, &c. You perceive that in this lesson we 
not only have the chord of the diminished seventh that is founded as it were on the dominant in each key, but also the one that would occur in the same 
place in the next key, (transposing by fifths,) and that the latter resolves in a different way from the former. Is the first chord of the diminished seventh 
in each key here, direct or inverted ? The second ? Which inversion ? See how many pleasant resolutions you can play to each of these three chords ? 

Fill up the gap in the transposition of this cadence by playing it also in B, Ftt, Gr|?, DJ7, and Aj?. 





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Bfo. C7C. The Chord of the Extended Sixth. 

This chord which is considerably used in the music of the present day, will perhaps be better understood by considering it the second inversion if 
the dominant seventh of the next key, (transposing by fifths,) only the base noto is flatted, and the fourth sharped (so to speak,) tbus making it resolve 
very differently from what it otherwise would. It may seem strange to you that there should be a fourth in the chord of the seventh, but this phrase- 
ology, like the term " extended sixth," is derived from the marking for thorough base. What intervals make this chord ? 

Play this also in G, E, B, F#, G|2, Dk, and Afc 

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It is believed that you will now be able to tell at every modulation into what key you go, and also the tones by which the change is made. It is 
not thought necessary to classify all the modulations that may be made. Analyze and name carefully all the harmony of every piece you play and sing 
before performing it. 



24 



186 



Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics. 



KTo. G77. l&TWiraS &L^GATXT^S. — lAVngelns. 

A careless playing of this, and of some other pieces that follow, may perhaps give you the idea that they are easy, and that they should have been 
practiced at an early stage of this Curriculum. You will, however, probably change your mind when you undertake to give every tone here indicated 
its exact value, no more, no less, and- the melody its. cantabile -"character. Difficulties in piano-forte playing do not always exist in rapid execution. Some 
of the most subtle and troublesome are of this unobtrusive kind, and require not only great control of the fingers in a certain way, but considerable taste 
and musical culture. It is, therefore, not always wise to pronounce a piece easy because at the first glance it looks so. 



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Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics. 



]Vo. G79. Syncopation, Second Form. 

First play without the ties, then with them, counting promptly. Think of the two tied eighths as making a quarter. 



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189 



STo. CSS. Turn and Mordente. 

You perceive that the embellishments here used arc first written out in full, and then indicated by their usual signs. You will notice that when 
the sign of the turn is placed exactly over a note it indicates a different effect from what it does when placed between notes. You will also observe that 
there are little differences in the form and sound of the turn, these are to be regulated by your taste. It may be proper here to say that embellishments 
are now-a-days frequently indicated in full either as here by large notes, or, by the use of the little grace notes. Play the melody first, beginning at the 
second section, without observing the signs of embellishment — afterwards the whole piece, not too fast. 



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Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics, 



KTo. 683. Pedal Harmony. 

Observe that this lesson is first played through with the usual harmony, then with pedal harmony. After a time the latter will be preferred. 



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In this 6tude some of the turns are indicated by appoggiaturas — notes which have no value of their own, but borrow from their neighbors. This 
mode of indicating the turn is frequently employed, — notice the pedal harmony in the third measure. What chord would be used commonly ? Try it. 
Which do you like best ? Can you tell to what keys the little modulations here take you ? Say which are tones of chords, and which are passing notes. 
A considerable difficulty in this piece consists in giving an accent to the first note of the short legato marks, making the last one short and soft, and 
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&Tl31»ras ^LdfeGATSTCES. — Souvenir d' Enf ance. 



Endeavor to understand all the chords, and into what keys you modulate. Observe the rule for the legato marks first given. A. Loeschorn. 



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192 



Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice—Twenty-fourth Series. 



Arpeggios of the Chords of the Diminished Se-venth. Play the unfinished lessons like the complete ones. 
Vo. 680. „|^| _PT B ?*»i — wfi^U^S gflfl _^T 




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No. 688. 




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193 



KTo. 608. 

DOLENTE 



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2. And while up - on the scene I gaze, A bright form comes from out the maze., 



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tie love al- lures me back. But 



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194 



Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics. 



No. 699. ETUDES OAEAOTERISTIQTJES.— Song without words. 

The pupil will observe that the main difficulty in this lesson, consists in connecting the melody, and in making it sound as much as possible like a 
voice. Grive well the gradual modulations indicated by the dynamic marks. 

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195 



No. 700. The TrilL 

You observe that the trill is the rapid alternation of a tone indicated by a written note, with the one a step or half step above it, and that you com- 
mence the trill sometimes with the upper and sometimes with the lower of these two tones — that it has a turn at the close to give it a finish, excepting 
in certain descending phrases, and that it must be in time, having just four or eight tones to a count (excepting sometimes in the turn). Notice also 
that in sonie cases an appoggiafrura precedes the trill wheu it commences with the lower tone. Play the piece thoroughly, giving four tones to each 
count in the trill, then try eight, as indicated in the group of choice notes. Ascertain carefully the right fingering. 




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190 Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics. 



No. 701. Octaves- 
Turn ba-ck to page 45, and commence at No. 16 for your " Twenty-fifth series of instrumental exercises for daily practice." Play this series and 
as many more as your teacher thinks best, in octaves, striking from the wrist as much as possible. 



No. 702. 



^TUDES CAEACTERISTIQUES.-Polonaise. 



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No. 704. 



g©MS m THE WAHBBRBH. — TU Absent ©ae. 




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Oh her lov-ing glan-ees beam'd up-on my eom-ing With the light of oth - er hap - py days. 
But my darling sis - ter in her an - gel radiance Yet shall greet me with her lov-ing kiss. 




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Ev-ery sun-ny smile and 
And the beauteous form so 
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199 



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ETUDES PROGRESSIVES. —The Bees in the Heather Bells. 



Connect well, and make somewhat prominent, the melody formed by the eighth notes. This will be done by giving them a little accent. 

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201 



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]Vo. 707. In this exercise make a part for the left hand by playing an octave below the right. Its fingering is under the lesson. Play- each 
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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice---Twenty-Sixth Series. 



203 



measure ten times. F and H may Ibe played together, as may G- and I. Strike the notes exaetly together. Vary the exercises. Transpose, 



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No. 728. 

v G10J0S0. 



SONGS Off THIS WAHBIME. — Yke Woloome. 



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ETUDES PROGRESSIVES.— The Rippling Brook. 




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207 



KTo. 73©. 



ETUDES CARACTERISTIQTJES.- Nocturne. 



Each of the Etudes CaracteYistiques, you perceive, is a specimen of one of the more unusual kinds of music. The nocturne or " music of the 
night/' is usually of this singing, yet fanciful character. It is not expected that it will be as popular as some of the brighter music, but it will meet the 
wants of certain states of feeling, and will be sure to improve on acquaintance. All the pieces in this part of the book should be thoroughly analyzed 
that every harmony and every modulation may be known. 

(••=80 



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ANPANTINO. 



ETUDES CAEACTEKISTIQTJES.---Serenaae. 



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Instrumental Exercises for Daily Practice— Twenty-Seventh Series. 



211 



After learning the scales in thirds, and these in sixths, you will be able, should your teacher think it best, to practice successfully the same in the 
various relative minors. It may be desirable for you to precede the practice of this page with exercises like A, B, F, Cr, H and I, on pages 202 and 
203. If so, you can easily make them by inverting the tones of those very lessons. 



No. 733. 



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No. 735 




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No. 7^3. ETUDES PROGRESSIVES. —The Wild Horse on the Prairie. 

Be careful to ol>scrve the repeats, and first and second endings; also the proper place for the final ending.. Strike with a flexible hand. 
ALLEGito. Th. Kullack. 



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TVo. 744. 

PRELUDE. 8va.. 



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No. 745. 

Moderate). 



80NS8 m THK WAHBBREB. — Saags of Koiao. 




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1. Son^s of home, Songs of home ! How I love your well known strains, Round my heart, round my heart, Ye have bound your silver ehains. 

2. SonSsof'home, Songs of home! Tho' my feet have widely strayed, Ye re - eall, ye re - eall To the roof-tree's bless-ed shade. 



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For to you, for to you, on eaeh dark and dreary day, Have I turned, have I turned while so far, so far a - way. 
For the heart, for the heart, while it, glad - dens or it grieves, Like a bird, like a bird, seeks the same be-lov-ed eaves. 



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Oh yes there is no spot on earth so dear to me as home. 
Oh yes there is no dear - er spot this side the rest a - bove, 



No fai - ry land like thine to whieh my 
Than home with all its hallowed ties of 



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heart so longed to come, And where in - deed ean love so true and tones so sweet be found As here a-mid the 

ten-derness and love With ev - ery ten - dril in - ter - twined that frail es - is - tenee knows. And hope and joy and 

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scenes and songs of childhoods charmed ground. Home, 

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no strains so dear as thine sweet songs of home. 

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Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics. 219 



]\To. 747. Tremolo, Measure repeat, Abbreviations. 

It would be well totake the dampers off the strings by means of the pedal, during the eontinuanee of eaeh ehord, — stopping the vibration where 
the ehord ehanges. It is not uneommon in the tremolo to make the tremulous motion of the hand as fast as may be, keeping the general time of the 
measure, rather than attending to eaeh note. Observe that the marks of abbreviation over the base at the ninth measure show that you are to play as at 
the beginning. Give the expression aeeording to your own taste. 



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Wo. 748. 



i/I^lM&S &L&C5rAI$ r T!<:S. — lia I\oiu\e des Archers. 



A careful examination should be made of the chords, modulations, suspensions, passing notes and general style of these eludes, that they may be 
played from intelligence and appreciation. It is expected that the pupil who learns everything thoroughly as he goes on in this Curriculum, will enj<,y 
them; but it is not so certain that his friends, who have not had a similar training, will at first perceive their excellence— but to all they will improve. 

PRELUDE. 

Moderate quasi Allegretto. |*=104. J. Concone. 



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Various Keys and Various Harmonies in Various Styles of Etudes, Songs and Technics. 



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Abbreviation, 114 

Adalida, song, 141 

Appoggiatura, 39 

Apprehension, Suspense, Certainty, 177 
Arpeggios. 

Common chord, major, one oct., 100 
Common chord, major, two Oct., 

112, 170 
Common chord, minor, one oct., 148 
Common chord, minor, two oct., 154 
Common chord, various, ....158, 179 
Common chord, 2 oct., irregular 161 
Diminished seventh, two oct.,,.. 192 
Dominant seventh^two octaves, 120 
Dominant seventh, 2 oct., irreg. 165 
Dominant seventh, various,164, 179 

Au Suisse (four hands), 98 

Banish your Sadness, song, 34 

Chord of dominant seventh, 72, 128, 184 

Chord of the ninth, 119 

Chord of diminished seventh, 185 

Chord of extended sixth,.." 185 

Chromatic scale, 106, 172, 182 

Common chord, 69 

Cradle Song 231 

Crossing hands, t 116 

Dance movement, 76 

Dance of the Rustic Masqueradcrs, 180 
Duets. 

First, 27 

Second, 29 

Third, 30 

Fourth, 32 

Fifth, 34 

Sixth, 38 

Seventh, 39 

Eighth, 42 

Ninth, 44 

Tenth, 48 

Eleventh, 58 

Twelfth, 76 

Thirteenth 80 

Fourteenth, 82 

Fifteenth, 84 

Sixteenth, 90 

Seventeenth, '. 92 

Eighteenth, 96 

Nineteenth, 98 

Eighth time through the keys, 122 

Etudes Characteristiques, 194, 196, 

, 207, 2l'9, 226, 230, 231, 234 
Etudes Elegantes, 186, 188, 190, 191, 

196, 199,214, 217, 220, 222, 228 
Etudes Progressives, 156, 160, 166, 
173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 181, 183, 

200, 205, 212 
Exercises for Daily Practice. 
"' Instrumental. 

First series, 45 

Second series, 52 

Third scries 64 

Fourth series, ,..„ 66 

Fifth series, 100 

Sixth series, 104 

Seventh series, 112 

Eighth series, , 120 

Ninth series, 121 

Tenth scries, 148 

Eleventh series, 153 

.Twelfth series, 154 

Thirteenth sorios, f 158 

Fourteenth series, 161 

Fifteenth series, 163 j 

Sixteenth series, 164 

Seventeenth series, 166 



Eighteenth series, 168 

Nineteenth series, 170 

Twentieth series, 172 

Twenty-first series, 176 

Twenty-second series, 179 

Twenty-third series, 182 

Twenty-fourth series, 192 

Twenty-fifth series, 196 

Twenty-sixth series, 202 

Twenty-seventh series, 211 

Vocal. 

First series, 74 

Second series, 114 

Third series, 152 

Fourth series, 224 

Fifth time through the keys, 106 

First time through the keys, 23 

Five finger exercises, 45, 52, 66, 100, 104 

Flashes on the Evening Cloud, 166 

Gaily the Bright Wings, song, 55 

Galopade .(four hands), 76 

Galop (four hands), 90 

Galop movement, 61 

Glossary, 19 

Harmony, 69 

1 love the Gleams of Sunlight, song, 32 

Imperfect common chord, 184 

Inversions of common chord, 109 

Inversions of dominant seventh,.... 119 

Inversions in minor, 128 

Kitty by the Fireside, 173 

La Frileuse, 214 

L'Angelus, 186 

La Ronde des Archers, 220 

Le Chanson du Matin, 190 

Le Printemps, 196 

Lcs, Papillons, 217 

L' Etc, 199 

L'llirondelle, 222 

Look away to the Fields, song, 60 

Magic Bells, 228 

March, 84 

March Movement, 62 

Merrily over the Waters, song, 43 

Method of Teaching, 3 

Modulation, 122, 123 

Moonlight on the Rippling Waters, 140 

Mordente, '.. 189 

Night's Shades no Longer, song, ... 54 

Ninth time through the keys, 150 

Nocturne, 207 

Music, Sweet Music, song, 26 

Over the Meadows, song, 30 

0, how Sweet, song, 62 

Passing notes, 71 

Pedal Harmony, 190 

Polonaise, 196 

Potpourri,....- 235 

Proudly floats the Banner, 146 

Quickstep movement, 56, 69 

Quickstep (four hands), 80, 92 

Raindrops are Falling, song, 61 

Redowa (four hands), 84 

Reminiscences of the Battle, song,... 208 

Repeating notes, 68, 153 

Resolution, 184 

Retrospection, song, 193 

Reverie, 230 

Rondo movement, 50, 56 

Sadness, Hope, Joy, 174 

Scale and arpeggio, major, one oot., 100 
Scale and arpeggio, major, two oct., 112 
Seale and arpeggio, minor, one oct. t 148 
Scale and arpeggio, minor, two oct., 154 
Scale, major, one octave, 64 



Scales in thirds, 202 

Scales in sixths, :. 211 

Scales in which one hand goes faster 

than the other, 121 

Scales with different accents, 168 

Scales, major and minor, two oct.,.. 176 

Second time through the keys, 54 

Sequences, 163 

Serenade, 209 

Seventh time through the keys, 117 

Sing, Brothers, Sing! song, 37 

Singing as an art, 71 

Sitting round the Hearth-stone, song 41 

Sixth time through the keys, 109 

Slow waltz movement, 56 

Softly the Shades, song, 54 

Solfeggio one, C major, 124 

Solfeggio two, C major, 126 

Solfeggio three, G major, 130 

Solfeggio four, D major, 133 

Solfeggio five, E major, 137 

Solfeggio six, E flat major, 143 

Solfeggio seven, F major, 147 

Solfeggio eight, G major, 157 

Solfeggio nine, D major, 162 

Solfeggio ten, A major, 167 

Solfeggio eleven, A flat major,.. ' .. 171 

Solfeggio twelve, E flat major, 175 

Songs of Home, song, 216. 

Songs of the Wanderer, 187, 193, 

198, 204, 208, 216 

"Song without Words, 194 

Sounds from the Chapel, 166 

Souvenir (four hands),- 96 

Souvenir d'Enfance, 191 

Sprites of Shadow and Sunshine,... J 60 

Staccato practice, 48 

Suspensions, * 106 

Swiftly o'er the Tide, song, 40 

Tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth times 

through the keys, 156 

The Absent One, song, 198 

The Bees in the Heather Bells, 200 

The Brooklet, song, 99 

The Butterfly among the Flowers,... 144 

The Chase of the Chamois, 181 

The Dying Soldier, song, 145 

The Forest, song, 77 

The Guardian, song, 130 

The Happy Group, 123 

The Happy Return, song, 126 

The Hillside, song, 86 

The Holiday Party, 132 

The Invitation to the Dance, song,.. 135 

The Leafy Dell, song, 88 

The Little River, song, 73 

The Meadow Flower, song 73 

The Merry Blacksmith, 188 

The Old Guard, 134 

The Orchard, song, 91 

The Return of the Regiment, 178 

The Rippling Brook, 205 

The Sighing of the Breeze, 100 

The Silver Lake, song, 92 

The Smiling Land, song, 80 

The Sunbeams of the Morning 129 

The Swallow's flight over the Camp, 142 

The Vale, song, 97 

The Village Green, 125 

The Welcome, song, 204 

The Wild Horse of the Prairie, 212 

The Willow by the River, 136 

The Wind among the Forest Trees, 183 
The Woodland, song, 83 



The Woodland Ramble, .;.... 156 

Third time through the keys, 70 

Thorough base, 102, 150 

Three Friends' Sleigh-ride, 68 

Three Friends Waltz, 63 

Transcription, 226 

Transposition, 50 

Tremolo, 219 

Trill, 305 

Trio, G3, 68 

Turn, 1S9 

Two Friends Polka, f>8 

Waltz (four hands), 82 

Waltz movement,...- 57, 59, 60, 62 

Welcome Hour of Song 28 

Where Sweetest Flowers Grow, song, 57 

INSTRUMENTAL PIECES. 
Apprehension, Suspense, Certainty, 177 

Au Suisse, 98 

Cradle Song,...' 231 

Dance of the Rustic Masqucraders, 18U 
Duets, see Duet. 
Etudes, see Etudes. 

Flashes on the Evening Cloud, 166 

Gallop (four hands), 90 

Gallopade (four hands), 76 

Kitty by the Fireside, 173 

La Frileuse, 214 

L'Angelus, 186 

La Ronde des Archers, 220 

Le Chanson du Matin, 190 

Lc Printemps, 196 

LesJPapillons, 217 

L' Et£, 199 

L' Hirondelle, 222 

Magic Bells, 228 

Moonlight on the Rippling Waters,.. 140 

Nocturne, 207 

Polonaise, 196 

Potpourri, 235 

Proudly floats the Banner, 146 

Redowa (four hands), 84 

Reverie, 230 

Sadness, Hope, Joy, 174 

Serenade, 209 

Song without Words, 194 

Sounds from the Chapel, 166 

Souvenir (four hands), 96 

Souvenir. d'Enfance, 191 

Sprites of Shadow and Sunshine,... 160 

Syncopation, 39 

The Bees in the Heather Bells, 200 

The Butterfly among the Flowers,... 144 

The Chase of the Chamois, 181 

The Happy Group, 123 

The Holiday Party, 132 

The Invitation to the Dance, 135 

The Merry Blacksmith, 188 

The Old Guard, 134 

The Return of the Regiment, 178 

The Rippling Brook, 2u5 

The Sighing of the Breeze, 1UO 

The Sunbeams of the Morning, 129 

The Swallow's flight over the Camp, 142 

The Village Green 125 

The Wild Horse of the Prairie 212 

The Willow by the River, 1W 

The Wind among the Forest Trees,.. 1S3 

The Woodland Ramble, 156 

Three Friends' Sleigh-ride, 68 

Three Friends Waltz, 63 

Transcription, 226 

Two Friends IV.ia, 58 

Waltz (four hands), 82 



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